METAL OXIDE THIN FILMS: A MINI REVIEW
The main objective of this work is to provide glimpses of the research which is based on the preparation of thin films of metal oxides using the sol-gel method, and research work of those studies on the structure, physical and chemical characteristics and other properties, it also recognize on the equipment and means by which samples, films were examined which produced in this research and explain the idea of Sol-gel process and advantages of this process makes an important and preferable to the rest of the other methods, as well as displays their flaws, and applications of films produced.
TRIAZOLES AS POTENTIAL ANTITUBERCULAR AGENT: A REVIEW
Ubiquitous presence of triazole ring in the field of medicinal chemistry attracted attention of the scientists for considering it as a scaffold for development of newer remedial agent. This review article emphasize on recent work reported on the antitubercular activity of synthetic triazole derivatives as present antitubercular drugs are more toxic and multiple drug therapy is required due to growing resistance by mycobacterium tuberculossis. So it is significant to explore the potential of triazoles with excellent antitubercular activity with newer mechanism of action.
ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON USEFUL PLANTS OF PACHAMALAI HILLS OF TIRUCHIRAPPALLI DISTRICT OF TAMILNADU
An ethnobotanical survey was carried out among the rural communities of Pachamalai, Tiruchirappalli district, Tamilnadu for identifies and documentation of traditional medicinal plants used for the treatments of various ailments occurs in their daily life. A total of 122 species of ethnomedicinal plants belonging to 51 families were reported with the help of standard flora among rural community. The medicinal plants used by rural communities are arranged alphabetically followed by botanical name, family name, parts used and their therapeutic uses.
MOLECULAR DETECTION OF HUMAN BRUCELLOSIS IN IRAQI POPULATION
Brucellosis, Undulant fever, Mediterranean fever or Malta fever is different wards for one disease which is an infectious disease caused by a type of bacteria called Brucella , that are almost invariably transmitted by direct or indirect contact with infected animals or their products. Additionally, human brucellosis has a serious medical impact worldwide, which affects people of all age groups and of both sexes. The eradication poses major difficulties because this disease is largely under diagnosed and underreported. Furthermore, brucellosis in human beings is rarely fatal; it can be severely debilitating and disabling. A renewed scientific interest in human brucellosis has been fuelled by its recent re-emergence and enhanced surveillance in many areas of the world because of regarding the disease as a class B bioterrorist agent and remains the world’s most common bacterial zoonosis.
STUDIES ON PROTEIN PROFILE OF DIFFERENT SPECIES OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI
The aim of this study was to investigate the protein profile of four different species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi namely, Gigaspora margarita, Glomus mosseae, Glomus fasciculatum and Glomus leptoticum. The mycorrhizal spores were isolated from different location in Chennai and multiplied by trap culture. Allium cepa was used as host plant in trap culture. The Proteins were extracted from AMF associated Allium cepa roots at the time interval of 15 days, 30 days and 45 days. Proteins were estimated using Bradford method and subjected to Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate- Polyacrylamide Gel (SDS PAGE) analysis. Protein profile of mycorrhizal plants reported more number of SDS PAGE bands when compared with non mycorrhizal control plant.
DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED HPLC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF THE FLAVONOID BAICALIN
This paper reports a simple validated reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography method which is fast, precise, and highly specific for determination of baicalin. The separation was achieved using thermo scientific C18 ODS Hypersil column (mm) (250x4.6 mm, 5µm) with a mobile phase consisting of methanol to acetic acid (0.2%) at ratio 94:6, a flow rate of 1.0 ml per minute, and detection at a wavelength of 279 nm. The calibration curve was linear, having a correlation coefficient 0.9997 within range of 2.5–100 µg/ml. The retention time for baicalin was less than 4 minutes. Validation was done according to ICH guidelines with respect to accuracy, linearity, specificity, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantification and satisfactory results were obtained.
DFT APPROACH ON CORROSION INHIBITION PERFORMANCE OF THIOSEMICARBAZONE DERIVATIVES ON METALLIC IRON
Corrosion inhibition performance of three following thiosemicarbazone derivatives such as p-methylacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (TSC-1), p-methoxyacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (TSC-2) and p-aminoacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (TSC-3), on iron was evaluated by density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level. The structural parameters that are most relevant to inhibition efficiencies, such as EHOMO, ELUMO, energy gap (ΔE), dipole moment (μ), hardness (η), softness (s), the absolute electronegativity (χ), the electrophilicity index (w), fraction of electrons transferred (ΔN) from thiosemicarbazone derivatives to iron and the back donation (ΔEBack-donation) have been calculated. The local reactivity has been analyzed through the condensed Fukui function indices using condensed electron density on atoms.
ORAL ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA L. LEAVES EXTRACT AND FRACTIONS IN ALBINO MICE
The medicinal plants have been used traditionally for different purposes such as pest control and treatment of human diseases. Despite these potentials, only few plants have been evaluated for their safety. This study aimed at investigating oral acute toxicity of Annona squamosa leaf extract and fractions using albino mice. The aqueous-ethanol, dichloromethane and petroleum ether fractions were prepared and tested for oral acute toxicity. Whereas some toxicity signs occurred for aqueous-ethanol extract at doses ≥1500 mg/kg bwt that of dichloromethane fraction were seen at 1000-5000 mg/kg and that of petroleum ether fraction were at 5000 mg/kg. All the tested materials at a dose above 300 mg/kg bwt had negative effects on the growth of the mice. The LD50 were estimated to be >1000 mg/kg bwt for dichloromethane, >1500 mg/kg bwt for aqueous-ethanol extract and >3000 mg/kg bwt for petroleum ether fraction. All mice dissected had normal organs except one among six females treated with aqueous-ethanol extract at 5000 mg/kg bwt which had pus in the uterus. Relative organ weight (ROW) suggested effects in kidney and heart.
The LD50 in this study indicated that the dichloromethane fraction and aqueous-ethanol extracts are harmful if swallowed while petroleum ether fraction may be harmful if swallowed hence people should be warned against oral use of these products. Since only behavioral and gross organ examinations were done, further studies involving histological and hematological examinations are suggested.
ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY OF STANDARDISED EXTRACTS OF ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS AS A COMBINATION FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF MENOPAUSAL SYMPTOMS
Ethno medicinal plants viz. Vitex negundo L. (fruits), Linum usitatissimum L. (seeds) and Asteracantha longifolia Nees. (seeds) have been claimed for their potential use in women’s health problems. These plants have been a part of various traditional formulations available in the market for the management of menopausal syndrome individually or in combination. The study aimed to standardize β-sitosterol rich extracts of V. negundo, L. usitatissimum and A. longifolia individually and in combination for the management of menopausal syndrome using ovariectomized rats for estrogenic activity. In the present work, extracts of V. negundo, L. usitatissimum and A. longifolia have been standardized using HPTLC in terms of their β-sitosterol content. These plants as well as their polyherbal combination were evaluated for their efficacy in terms of production of 17β-estrogen in ovariectomized rats. Effect on histoarchitecture of the uterus, uterine weight, changes glycogen levels, G6PDH, LDH, 17β-estrogen and progesterone were also analyzed. Among the two doses administered in ovariectomized rats, high dose of polyherbal combination was found to be more efficacious than the low dose and the individual plants. Present work establishes synergistic effect of these three ethnomedicinal plant extracts as a combination in a dose dependent manner. The enhanced estrogenic activity of polyherbal combination is clearly evident with the results of current study and comparable with estradiol valerate treatment. Thus, these results justify the use of standardized extracts as a polyherbal combination which can be used as an adjunct therapy in the management of menopause symptoms.
ASSESSMENT OF FRESH AND DRY CASSAVA PEELS FOR NUTRIENTS POTENTIALS ON GROWTH OF Telfairia occidentalis HOOK IN TROPICAL SOIL
This study was designed to assess the nutrient composition of fresh and dry cassava peels and effects on Telfairia occidentalis Hook in tropical soil. The chemical properties of experimental soil and cassava peel were determined using standard procedures. 2kg of sectioned fresh and dry cassava peels were mixed with 2kg of sandy- loam soil based on treatment. Each treatment was placed in a perforated polythene bag. The following treatments were used; soil –only (control), soil + fresh cassava peel, and soil + dry cassava peel. The organic matter, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium contents in soil containing dry cassava peel were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of the control and soil treated with fresh cassava peel. Similarly, the plant height, root length, leaf number, fresh weight, dry weight and moisture contents of the test crop in soil containing dry cassava peel were comparatively higher than those of the control and soil treated with fresh cassava peel. The utilization of dry cassava peels as organic nutrients supplement for the growth of Telfairia occidentalis is a viable option for replenishing soil nutrients in Nigerian tropical soils. However, it is important to take into consideration the soil nutrient status and crop needs.
FISH DIVERSITY AND HABITAT RELATIONSHIP OF SELUM NULLAH AND AIK NULLAH WITH REFERENCE TO PHYSICO CHEMICAL PARAMETERS AT BARI BRAHMANA, JAMMU DISTRICT, J&K
The present study was conducted to access population structure of Selum nullah and Aik nullah, the diversity rich perennial tributaries of river Tawi. Present study depicts the presence of total 14 species belonging to 10 genera and 4 families in Selum nullah and 20 species belonging to 15 genera and 8 families in Aik nullah including 13 species in common. Both the study stations are dominated by order Cypriniformes including family Cyprinidae. To draw a better and authenticated picture of the data recorded, a measure of species richness and evenness of their distribution were also under taken. The total number of species recorded in both the study areas show good indication of species rich diversity though the water bodies are moderately polluted but all the variables of water bodies are within permissible limits. Though this study is first of its kind with no previous data record on abundance but, this study will provide base line data for conservation strategies in future.
A NOVEL APPROACH FOR CONTROLLING BIOFILM FORMATION ON OSSICULAR CHAIN RECONSTRUCTION PROSTHESES
The potential risk of infection due to the biofilm formation on implant surface constitutes one of the drawbacks of hydroxyapatite ossicular chain prostheses. The current study explores the use of chitosan nanoparticles as an antimicrobial agent impregnated in hydroxyapatite to prevent pathogenic colonization and subsequent suboptimal outcomes associated with ossicular reconstruction surgeries.
In the current study, chitosan nanoparticles were chemically synthesized in the laboratory using ionic gelation method. Characterization of these nanoparticles was carried out by UV- visible spectrophotometer and maximum absorption was noted at 350nm. SEM analysis revealed spherical morphology of chitosan nanoparticles with size ranging from 45nm to 50 nm.
The antimicrobial activity of chitosan nanoparticles was tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, common pathogens associated with ossicular implant infections. Further, models of hydroxyapatite ossicular implants were impregnated with chitosan nanoparticles and checked against the test organisms. A significant reduction in biofilm formation was seen; indicating that chitosan nanoparticles could provide a novel approach in controlling ossicular chain reconstruction prostheses associated infections.