KINETICS AND MECHANISTIC OXIDATION OF 2,4-DICHLOROBENZALDEHYDE USING POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE
Permagnetic oxidation of 2,4-diChlorobenzaldehyde has been studied at different temperatures using spectrophotometer under acidic conditions. The effect of variation of substrate (2,4-diCB), oxidant (KMnO4) and H2SO4 was studied under pseudo first order reaction conditions. The effect of different salts on oxidation of 2,4-diCB was also studied. The reaction was found to be first order with respect to oxidant, substrate and H2SO4. A suitable mechanism is also suggested for the oxidation reaction.
CATIONIC MODIFIED RICE STARCH FOR DRINKING WATER PURIFICATION
Drinking water treatment is of paramount importance for all people all over the world. Traditional water coagulant, aluminum sulfate poses a great risk for human health as it adds residual aluminum metal to drinking water. A cationic rice starch polymer prepared from waste product (broken rice) was evaluated to be used in water treatment. The suggested polymer is a biodegradable product and environment friendly. Application of cationic rice starch in the treatment of Nile river water showed that the turbidity caused by organic matter, colloidal silica were decreased to the lowest levels by using 6 ppm of cationic rice starch. Also, better results of water treatment were observed than that obtained when using 40 ppm of aluminum sulfate. Maximum treatment results were obtained on using a mixture of (4 and 23) ppm of cationic rice starch and aluminum sulfate, respectively for the treatment of raw water.
SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF TRACE AMOUNT OF TUNGSTEN (VI) IN ALLOY SAMPLES USING 4-HYDROXY BENZALDEHYDE THIOSEMICARBAZON
A simple ultra-sensitive non extractive spectrophotometric method for the determination of tungsten (VI) using the reagent 4hydroxybenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (4-HBTS). The reagent 4-HBTS gives Yellow color with tungsten (VI) solution of weak acidic medium p H 6.0 and the maximum absorbance was observed at 365 nm, Beer’s law is obeyed in the range.0.7354 to 7.354 µg/ml. The linear plot can be fitted into the equation A356 = 0.0186C + 0.0149. The molar absorptivity and Sand ell’s sensitivity values are 1.4 x 104 L mol-1 cm-1 and 0.00128µg/cm2 respectively. The stability constant of 1:1 tungsten (VI) - 4-HBTS complex is calculated and is found to be 6.7 x 106. The influence of interferences on the proposed method was studied and presented. The procedure was successfully applied for the determination of tungsten in different alloy samples.
IMPACT OF LONG TERM HEMODIALYSIS ON LIPID PROFILE AMONG CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE PATIENTS- A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY
Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) patients are at risk of cardiovascular diseases due to the elevation of various forms of lipids. The present study was done to describe the impact of long term hemodialysis on the levels of lipids profile. A total of 70 patients with chronic renal failure under regular hemodialysis that does not share the same period of dialysis time (4.0357±1.76) per month. We obtained serum samples from patients in the morning after an overnight fast and were analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL, and LDL, VLDL was calculated. Triglyceride and VLDL levels observed significantly higher than the normal, with direct correlation with increase in the number of hemodialysis (P=0:000, r = 0.336), while there was no significant elevation observed in total cholesterol (P =0.561, r = 0.005). HDL (P: 0.468) and LDL-C (P : 0.588) when compared with the number of times of hemodialysis. From this study we are conducted that increase level of triglyceride and VLDL level in the circulation with increase duration times of hemodialysis and they was no effect of hemodialysis on total cholesterol and HDL and LDL-C. So fail of hemodialysis as a treatment to treat the dyslipidemia mainly hypertriglyceridemia.
DETERMINING THE ACCURATE INTERPRETATION OF CT SCAN IMAGES OF THE BRAIN WITHOUT CHILDREN INJECTION AMONG RESIDENTS OF CHILDREN AND EMERGENCY MEDICINE
Computed Tomography (CT Scan) has become an essential instrument in medical imaging and diagnosis. Interpretation of radiologic images as well as patient history and physical examination helps the physician to make the most relevant diagnosis. Emergency Medicine (EM) and Pediatric residents are two groups of physicians that are faced with CT Scans of children during their daily practice and need to know how to use it well. In this cross sectional study accuracy of Pediatric and Emergency Medicine residents in interpretation of pediatric brain CT Scans is determined. Two groups of residents consisting of 19 volunteers in each group were participated in this study. Images of pediatric brain CT Scans were presented to each participant and he was asked to find the pathologic findings in the image. Then, overall score for each participant was recorded and statistical analysis was conducted on these scores. Emergency Medicine residents had significantly greater score in comparison with pediatric residents (P value = 0.02). Accordingly, Postgraduate Year 1(PGY1) EM residents had greater scores than pediatric PGY1 residents (P Value=0.007). In Contrast there was no significant difference between PGY 2 residents in two groups. There was no difference between residents participated in CT Scan lectures or pediatric or EM rotations and ones that did not pass these courses. According to this study, EM residents are more accurate in interpretation of pediatric brain CT Scans. In addition, neither CT Scan lectures nor rotations were as much helpful as per case CT Scan experiments in Emergency Room for progression of residents’ accuracy.
KNOWLEDGE AND USE FROM NATIONAL DIGITAL LIBRARY AMONG PHYSICIANS HOSPITALS AFFILIATED TO SHAHREKORD UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES IN 2012
The importance of learning through electronic media in the majority of the scientific communities including the medical field is not hidden from anyone and based on the increasing spread of medical achievements, the need for specialized information databases is on the rise to inform the new findings. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine knowledge and use of physicians of hospitals affiliated with Shahrekord university of Medical Sciences from the National Digital Library. It is a descriptive study was carried out on the physicians of two teaching hospitals (Kashani and Hajar hospitals) and one clinical hospital (Vali Asr of Borujen).The population of this study was 60 physicians. Data collection was carried out by a researcher-designed questionnaire. Validity of the questionnaire confirmed by several professors and experts within Librarianship field and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha Coefficient of 0/89. The data were analyzed using SPSS software 18. Knowledge and use of physicians from comprehensive electronic journals and databases is very low. There was no significant difference between the knowledge and use of hospital physicians and their academic degree and also the type of the hospital. There was a correlation between the two variables of knowledge and use of electronic databases. The physician reported that their most way of obtaining knowledge from electronic database was through librarian guidance. Due to the increasing development of e-learning and international competition in this field, it is necessary to inform and increase the awareness of the physicians about their knowledge and use of electronic bank for learning and access to updated scientific information.
ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF CITRUS AURANTIFOLIA (CHRISTM) FRUIT PEELS AGAINST EXPERIMENTAL HELIGMOSOMOIDES BAKERI IN MICE
Citrus aurantifolia (Rutaceae) is commonly known as Lime orange. The plant is widely used in African and Asian traditional medicine. This present study was aimed at evaluating the in vivo anthelmintic activity of the extracts of C. aurantifolia fruit peel against Heligmosomoides bakeri (nematode) as a model. The crude methanol extract (CME) was partitioned using solvents of different polarities into ethylacetate (EE), butanol (BE) and aqueous methanol extract (AME). The median lethal doses (LD50) of the extracts were determined in mice. Seventy mice infected with H. bakeri were randomly allocated into 14 groups of 5 mice each and were treated with CME, AME, EE and BE at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. All treatments were administered orally on the 16th, 17th and 18th day post infection. Anthelmintic activity was assessed by comparing the worms recovered from the treated groups with the non-treated control group. At the dose of 1000 mg/kg, BE, CME, EE and AME caused a deparasitization rate of 79, 75, 75 and 51 %, respectively. CME, BE and EE produced a significant (p<0.05) deparasitization rate. This study demonstrated that Citrus aurantifolia fruit peels possess anthelmintic activity that might be caused by one or more of the secondary metabolites contained in the plant.
A STUDY OF AN EFFICIENCY OF HANDLING OVERDISPERSION USING POISSON REGRESSION AND ZERO INFLATED POISSON REGRESSION: A THALASEMIA CASE STUDY
Thalassemia is a blood related illness though descendant. Increasing number of patients suffering from thalassemia, especially among children has been reported year by year and has been identified ahead of other hereditary diseases in many parts of the world especially in Malaysia. Therefore, the increasing numbers of this illness annually, attracts the interest among the researchers to put an extra effort in order to overcome this illness. Other than that, most patients were also exposed other chronic diseases such as hemorrhagic illness, health problems, heart failure, influenza, anemia, pneumonia, acute bronchitis, asthma, acute tonsillitis, jaundice and tuberculosis. Data from patients especially among children has been successfully collected and it has been manifested in the form of statistic for analysis. The collected data then has been categorized according to certain scales appropriate to the analysis conducted. Due to the existence of many zero values in the data, the data is said to be suffering from over dispersion. This problem can be overcome by means of a zero-inflated Poisson regression model to reduce the value of zero.
APPLICATIONS OF ZERO INFLATED MODELS FOR HEALTH SCIENCES DATA
Pneumonia is an infection of one or both lungs which is usually caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Each year, pneumonia attack kills about 1.4 million people in the world, especially among children who are also the main sufferers of the disease. The aim of this study was to examine the factors that are associated directly or indirectly in pneumonia patients among the children. In this present paper, we have considered several regressions model to fit the count data that encounter in the field of Health Sciences. We have fitted Poisson, Negative Binomial (NB), Zero-Inflated Poisson (ZIP) and Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial (ZINB) regressions to pneumonia data. To compare the performance of these models, we analysed data with moderate to high percentage of zero counts. Because the variances were almost two times greater than the means, it appeared that both NB and ZINB models performed better than Poisson and ZIP models for the zero inflated and overdispersed count data. From the results of the ZINB regression can overcome overdispersion so it was better than the Poisson regression model.
EVALUATION OF ACUTE TOXICITY EFFECT OF SMILAX GLABRA EXTRACT ON WHITE ALBINO RATS
Smilax Glabra is a Chinese Medicinal plant used for the treatment of the many diseases. The purpose of the study was to test the acute oral toxicity of the extract of the plant rhizome. Acute toxicity of aqueous extract of Smilax glabra was evaluated in albino Swiss female mice. The acute toxicity studies were carried out based on OECD guidelines and 423 and fixed dosage studies was adopted where the limit dose is 3gm/kg body weight of test animal. Were orally administered a single dose of 3gm, 5gm/kg body weight. Sign of toxicity and mortality were noted after 24 hrs.of administrations (5gm/kg body weight) did not produced mortality or changes in the general behavior of the test animals. These results indicates that the safety usage of extract from this plant in traditional medicine.