CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS OF COPPER NANOPARTICLES AND ITS ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT AGAINST GRAM NEGATIVE PATHOGENS
In this study, copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) were synthesized using a chemical method involving the reduction of copper sulphate by sodium borohydride, while polyethylene glycol 6000 served as a stabilizer. Characterization of the synthesized nanoparticles was initially carried out by UV visible spectrophotometry and the maxima absorption was observed at 280 nm. Atomic absorption spectroscopy confirmed the concentration of the CuNPs in solution to be 19.60 ppm. SEM revealed the nanoparticles to possess a spherical morphology. The size of the nanoparticles was between 117nm to 873nm while their zeta potential was determined to be 0.2mV. Antimicrobial tests were done by the agar cup diffusion assay and the macro broth dilution assay. Antibacterial activity of the synthesized copper nanoparticles was tested against common Gram negative pathogens, E.coli, S.typhi and V.cholerae. The ratio of the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the particles was equal to one for all three test organisms, indicating CuNPs to be a good bactericidal agent.
SURGICAL TREATMENT OF POSTERIOR WALL ACETABULAR FRACTURE DISLOCATION: PREDECTION OF RISK FACTORS FOR FUTURE COMPLICATIONS; PROSPECTIVE STUDY
Acetabular fractures are generally caused by high- energy trauma and associated injuries are frequent. Treatment of the entire patient should follow accepted Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocol, with orthopedic management of the acetabular fracture appropriately integrated into the treatment plan. The purpose of this study was to show the results of operative fixation of posterior wall acetabular fracture dislocation and to predict the risk factors for future complications. A prospective study was done on 30 patients complaining from posterior wall acetabular fracture dislocation. Twenty eight cases were included in the study and 2 patients were excluded. The patients were treated at Al-Sadder Teaching Hospital, Orthopedic Sub department from February 2008-April 2014 with 2-5 years follow up. Patients were also followed up clinically and radiologically, early postoperatively, every 2 weeks for first 6 weeks and thereafter every 3 months for 2-3 years. The clinical assessment was based on the clinical scoring system based on Score of Merle D’Aubigne and postel. The mechanisms of fractures was usually due to major trauma, mainly occurred due to road traffic accident (12 cases, 42.8%), and followed by falling from height (8 cases, 21.4%). The majority of cases had associated injuries 17 cases (61.8%) and the main injuries were associated fractures (7 cases, 25%). There was no significant correlation between the time of surgery and the appearance of future complications. Radiological criteria for postoperative reduction were evaluated by 2 radiologists and qualities of reduction were correlated with the cases of associated complications which showed significant correlation between quality of reduction and appearance of future complications (P< 0.05).
SPECTROGRAPHIC ANALYSIS AND IN VITRO STUDY OF ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS ETHANOLIC FRUIT EXTRACT OF CARISSA CARANDAS L.
Fruits are the richest source of nutrients and minerals. Carissa carandas belongs to the Apocynaceae family and widely spread throughout India. Spectrographic methods are most reliable, for the analysis of phytochemicals. Carissa carandas fruits are plentiful sources of phytochemicals and possessing beneficial biological activities. The present work was first to focus on analysing of such phytochemicals in aqueous ethanolic fruit extract (AEE) using UV-Visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The fingerprint of the UV-spectra showed maximum absorption peak at 270 nm and FTIR helps in the recognition of functional groups and assignments. Furthermore, in-vitro studies showed that AEE possesses lowest MIC value 0.3125 mg/ml and induces cytotoxicity at 800µg/mL on HeLa cancer cells. The study concludes that, regular intake of fruits in daily diet suggested with reduced risks of infectious diseases and cancer.
PERSONALITY TRAITS OF IT LITIGANTS (THOSE WHO APPLIED FOR DIVORCE) IN CHENNAI
The researcher has selected 399 Information technology professionals to investigate the level of personality traits those who approached the family courts in Chennai for marital split. Neo Five Factor Inventory by McCrea Costa was used to collect the data from them. The data were collected by interview technique. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the findings. Results showed that 96% of the divorce litigants have very low conscientiousness, 70% of them have high or very high level of neuroticism and 85% of them have very low level of agreeableness. Study emphasized that the psychological aspects of these professionals needs to be taken care.
β-LACTAM RESISTANCE GENES IN GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM A STREAM IN PORTO ALEGRE
The Dilúvio stream is part of an important watershed in the city of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. It receives rain runoffs and domestic and hospital sewage, which carries a highly diverse microbial population. Some of these microorganisms may show resistance to different antimicrobials, acting as disseminators of resistance genes. This study characterizes the Gram-negative population present in the Dilúvio stream according to their antimicrobial resistance profiles, searching for the presence of β-lactams resistance genes. The resistance profile was determined according to the disk diffusion method using different classes of antimicrobials. The detection of the resistance genes blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M was carried out by PCR. Approximately 67% of the isolates from sampling points 1 and 3, and about 59% of the isolates collected from point 2 and more than 95% from site 4 were resistant to two or more antimicrobials. These strains were submitted to the PCR reaction looking for the genes blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M. The results showed a higher prevalence of blaTEM gene in 21 of the isolates. Two isolates were positive for two genes, blaTEM and blaSHV, six for blaSHV and one isolate was positive for blaCTX-M gene, revealing the transfer of different resistance genes to the environment.
SYRINX COMPLEXITY: CORRELATION WITH BIRDS CALLS
Ornithologists are very interested in identification and characterization of bird calls. Birds produce calls to convey information about food, announce the presence of a predator, identify family members, declare territorial boundaries etc. We studied sounds produced by different birds like White-breasted waterhen, White cheeked barbet, Ruddy shelduck etc. to characterize the bird calls using the prominent frequencies that are produced. The bird calls are qualitatively different for different birds and can clearly be identified in most of the cases. Comparison of sound produced by selected birds is implemented using the frequency distribution of sound. The frequency spectrum of sound is obtained using Fourier Transform technique implementing Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) employing standard mathematical software Mathcad.
DEVELOPMENT AND STANDARDIZATION OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATION
The most important challenges posed by herbal formulations is their evaluation and standardization. Evaluation is necessary to ensure the quality and purity of the herbalproduct. For evaluation of raw materials and poly herbal formulation various parameters are studied as per the World Health Organization's guidelines and the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. The present study deals with formulation the polyherbal formulation prepared from hydro-alcoholic (30:70) extracts of Andrographis paniculata(Stem and leaves), Asparagus racemosus(Root) , Ipomoea digitata (Rhizome), Tinospora cordifolia(Stem) and Withania somnifera(Root). To evaluate of raw materials include physicochemical studies like ash values, extractive values, phytochemical studies and safety profiles which include heavy metal analysis, pesticide residue analysis and microbial load analysis. The Preformulation parameters and parameters for finished product (hard gelatin capsule) include uniformity of weight, disintegration time, moisture content, pH, phytochemical estimation and microbial load assay. The HPTLC finger print profile of finished product was also carried out.
PREVALENCE OF ROTAVIRUS IN ACUTE PEDIATRIC PATIENTS ADMITTED TO A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN MANGALORE
Acute diarrhoea is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in young children, among which Rotavirus has a worldwide distribution, and is found in both developed and developing countries. The greatest burden of diseases is in Africa, India and South Asia.This study was therefore done to determine the prevalence and factors associated with Rotavirus infection among paediatric age group(0-14 years) during a one year period at KMC, Mangalore. One hundred and sixty five paediatric patients with acute diarrhoea were recruited. Samples were investigated for bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic enteropathogens using microscopic examination, bacterial culture techniques and IVD Rotavirus Stool Antigen Detection ELISA kit. Out of 165 stool samples tested for various causative agents of gastroenteritis, a total of 87 (52.8%) samples yielded organisms and in the other samples 78 (47.3%) the pathogens were unidentified. Rotavirus was the most common pathogen among the various diarrheagenic agents in pediatric age group to be isolated 35 (21.2%) followed by bacterial pathogens 32 (19.4%), Candida albicans 8 (4.8%) among the various Candida species 13 (7.9%) and Cryptosporidiumspp 8 (4.8%) being commonest among various parasitic pathogens 12 (7.3%). Rotavirus is prevalent in our area and is one of the commonest causes for acute gastroenteritis with severe dehydration, but the good news is that it is a vaccine preventable disease and since there was no mortality reported, the children could mostly be managed at home with the oral rehydration therapy. These data will be essential for planning and including the available vaccination strategies in the immunization schedule and for better sanitation program in this part of the country.
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF ECOFRIENDLY CHITOSANBASED COMPOSITES
Evaluation of some medicinal plants extracts which mixed with eco-friendly polymeric materials. Some medicinal plants have been extracted (Achillea fragrantissima and Cleome droserifolia) and the obtained crude extracts have been blended with suitable eco-friendly polymeric materials, namely, Chitosan and some cellulose derivatives. The blended materials have been characterized and their insecticidal activity has been also tested. In formulations F2 - F13 and F19 – F23 the extracts potency was decreased to less than 50% while showed more than 50% in case of F1 and F14 – F18. The conventional chemical and spectroscopic techniques have been used in the characterization in addition to other necessary techniques needed for their biological activity. The series of concentrations from Chitosan were prepared and tested against Culex pipiens and Musca domestica larvae mixed with both extracts at LC50 level. The obtained results have been collected; tabulated and possible justification has been included as well. While the increasing of Chitosan concentration in polymer mixtures increasing the potency of tested plant extracts. The temporal effect of mixtures number 4 and 5 revealed that the effect of mixtures continues for more than 15 days against Culex pipiens while their effect is almost stopped after 6 days in case of Musca domestica. From the last experiment we found that mixture No 4 is more persistent than mixture No 5 in fields. The results of the current work reveal that the potency of utilization of many polymers is due to their absorptive activity towards the plant extracts and also for their compatibility toward them. Besides, there is a synergistic effect of the polymer components enhancing the effect of the plant extract.
ASSESSMENT OF MENOPAUSAL SYMPTOMS USING MODIFIED MENOPAUSE RATING SCALE (MRS) AMONG MIDDLE AGE WOMEN IN SELECTED URBAN AND RURAL AREA OF PUNE DISTRICT
Menopausal symptoms experienced by women are known to affect their quality-of-life. The symptoms experienced at menopause are quite variable and their etiology is found to be multifactorial. The objectives of the study were to determine the commonly reported menopausal symptoms among middle age women using a modified Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and to compare the commonly reported menopausal symptoms in-between urban and rural areas of Pune district. By using modified MRS (Menopause Rating Scale) questionnaire, 40 urban and 40 rural women aged 40-60 years were interviewed and documented the symptoms of menopause. In rural group, half (50%) of the samples had age 56-60 years and all were housewives. In urban group, 82.5% of them were housewives. All of the middle age women in rural group had mild commonly reported menopausal symptoms. 65% of the middle age women in urban group had mild commonly reported menopausal symptoms and 35% of them had moderate commonly reported menopausal symptoms. Z-value for comparison of symptoms between urban and rural women was 18.6 with 78 degrees of freedom. Corresponding p-value was 0.000 which is small (less than 0.05), the null hypothesis was rejected. ANOVA results for association of commonly reported menopausal symptoms with the demographic variable of middle age women in rural group. Since p-vale corresponding to education of middle age women was small (less than 0.05), the null hypothesis was rejected. Middle age women in urban group were found to have significantly more menopausal symptoms as compared to those in rural group.
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF HPTLC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF IMATINIB MESYLATE IN API AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
A simple, rapid, selective and quantitative HPTLC method has been developed and validated for determination of Imatinib Mesylate in bulk and tablet dosage form. The Imatinib Mesylate samples were applied on TLC Aluminium plate pre coated with Silica gel60 GF254 and developed using Methanol: Choloroform (8: 2) v/v as a mobile phase. The bands were scanned at λ=279 nm using Camag TLC scanner 3 and detection and quantification were carried out densitometrically using an UV detector. The Rf value was found to be 0.22. The linearity of the method was found to be within the concentration range of 50-300 ng/spot and its percentage recovery was found to 96.55 %. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification were found to be 16.36 ng/spot and 49.59 ng/spot respectively. The Coefficient of determination (r2) was 0.9996. The regression equation was found to be y = 17.209x + 63.798. The method was also validated for precision, specificity and recovery. This developed method was used to analyse marketed formulation.
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF HPTLC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF RIFABUTINE IN API AND CAPSULE DOSAGE FORM
A simple, rapid, selective and quantitative HPTLC method has been developed and validated for determination of Rifabutine in bulk and capsule dosage form. The Rifabutine samples were applied on TLC aluminium plate pre coated with Silica gel60 GF254 and developed using acetone as a mobile phase. The bands were scanned at λ=282 nm using Camag TLC scanner 3 and detection and quantification were carried out densitometrically using an UV detector. The Rf value was found to be 0.58. The linearity of the method was found to be within the concentration range of 100-700 ng/spot and its percentage recovery was found to 97.89 %. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification were found to be 36.83 ng/spot and 111.6 ng/spot respectively. The Correlation of determination (r2) was 0.9995. The regression equation was found to be y = 11.906x+856.83. The method was also validated for precision, specificity and recovery. This developed method was used to analyze marketed formulation.