Technology Transfer: A New Buzz Word in Pharmaceutical Industry
With fast globalization of competition, the pharmaceutical industries with a trust for achieving enhanced operating performance and commercialization of products opt for transferring their owned technology to another unit which possesses all the necessary requirements. There is a sturdy increase in the demand of medical services due to ever increasing population and diseases, so the global pharmaceutical industry needs to maintain the pace with the demand. The pharmaceutical industry is under regulatory and patent protection; its ethical and religious issues are the focus of attention. Hence, the main focus is how the idea or process is further carried from a research program towards commercialization. The success depends on the effectiveness of the communication preceding its implementation. This review gives a brief knowledge about the knowhow of technology transfer, its barriers, various agreements and the process for it.
Development of Anaerobic Reactor for Industrial Wastewater Treatment: An Overview, Present Stage and Future Prospects
This paper reviews the development and evolution of anaerobic reactor for wastewater treatment. The successful application of anaerobic technology to the treatment of industrial wastewater is critically dependent on the development and type of anaerobic reactor used. Since the original design was developed, many modifications have been made in reactor design in order to enhance both the efficiency and reliability of the reactor. In this paper, the main alteration and modifications of anaerobic reactor would be documented.
Sociodemographic Factors Associated With Blood Pressure and Serum Lipids in Healthy Indians
Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the largest cause of mortality worldwide and in India the incidences of CVDs have increased for people between the ages 25-69, thus losing more productive people to these diseases.
Objective: To study the effect of age and gender on blood pressure, serum lipids and anthropometric indices among normal healthy individuals.
Material and methods: The study population consisted of 400 normal healthy individuals divided into two age-groups: 30-50years and 51-80 years. Exclusion criteria included evidence of hypertension (diastolic BP > 80 mm Hg) and use of medication. Blood samples were drawn from all the subjects following an overnight fast and TC, TG and HDL-C were measured enzymatically using “Accucare” kits. Serum LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated by Fredrickson-Friedwald formula. Blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric measurements were measured by a standardized protocol. Statistical analysis was done using the students -'t' test.
Results: BP, serum lipids, atherogenic ratios and WHR increased with age in both genders and this rise was significant (P<0.05) except in the parameter TG. Also HDL-C in males, atherogenic ratios in females and BMI showed a decrease with age but this decrease was insignificant. Moreover, in both the age groups: 30-50 and 51-80, females were having lower BP, serum lipids and WHR than those of males of corresponding age groups except HDL-C and BMI. This difference between male and female in both the age groups was found to be extremely significant. (P<0.001)
Conclusions: In our study, both age and gender are important atherogenic factors, which indicate that with increase in age, the older individuals both male and female are more susceptible to the development of HT and CVDs.
Nonlinear Dynamics of the Chaotic Nanostructures and Nanosystems: Quantum Mechanical Approach of Noise Assisted Transport Phenomena In N-Dimensional Bis Manifold
The term chaos is used to describe fluctuations about the mean deterministic stationary value of a physical quantity. It is now being increasingly realized that chaos is an important ingredient to bring order in dynamical processes. Though it appears counterintuitive, chaos seems to help in directing transport processes in biological systems at the molecular level. BIS stands for breakdown of integrated system. In this paper, we consider the nanosystems in the n-dimensional BIS manifold and discuss some illustrations of the chaotic nanostructures and nanosystems due to BIS processes. Temperature inhomogenicities will be explained in terms of Laudauer's Blow-torch theorem and thermodynamic efficiency of the nanosystem will be discussed in the BIS manifold. Finally we will justify the applicability of the ratchets with reference to our present studies.
Characterization of Free Fatty Acids Contents of Sudanese White Cheese during Storage
This study was conducted in the Dairy Technology Laboratory of College of Animal Production Science and Technology at Sudan University of Science and Technology and the Central lab of Khartoum University to characterize the fatty acids of Sudanese white cheese during storage period. Fresh whole cow’s milk (30 liters) was used to made white cheese. The process cheese was stored for 28 days (0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 intervals). Fatty acids profiles were analyzed using GC (Gas Chromatography) for each storage period interval. One way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. The Results showed that 12 organic fatty acids were recorded during the storage period of Sudanese White cheese capric (C10), lauric (C12) myristic, cis10-pentadcanoic, pentadcanoic, palmitic, palmitolic, cis10-heptadecanoic, heptadcanoic, linoleidacid, oleic and steric) The results were revealed that Oleic acid area % was gradually increased from day 7 until day 21 then thereafter decreased at day 28.Also the results showed that at day 28 of storage the concentrations of most fatty acids of the white cheese decreased .Also the results revealed that there were no significant differences' during storage periods in area % of all fatty acids except pentadecanoic acid(p≤0.01), no significant differences' during storage periods of all fatty acids concentrations were observed exceptcis10 pentadecanoicacid (p≤0.05).
Effect of Different Levels of Sodium Thiocyanate and Percarbonate for Activation of Lactoperoxidase on the Keeping Quality of Raw Milk
Effect of different levels of sodium thiocynate and sodium percarbonate for activation of lactoperoxidase system on keeping quality of raw cow's milk was investigated. The milk was collected directly from the dairy farm, Faculty of Animal Production Science and Technology, the collection and examination of samples were done during February-march 2012. Three levels of sodium thiocynate and sodium percarbonate (12, 16, 20 and 20, 30 40 mg/L) were used respectively. The samples were activated at about 30 min after morning milking then stored at 37°C for 8 hours. Titratable acidity % (TA), milk composition and total bacterial counts were evaluated. In each case, the keeping quality of activated samples was compared with that of control. The results showed that there were significant variations in the titratable acidity and total bacterial counts between the activated and control milk samplesthrought the storage period. However, the control milk samples were clearly spoiled at about 4th hour of storage,. Also the results revealed that no significant differences in milk composition (fat, protein, density and total solid) was observed among control and activated milk sample.
Thermodynamic Studies of Rare Earth Metal Complexes with Metformin Hydrochloride Drug in Mixed Solvent System
In the present work we investigate the stability constant of Metformin Hydrochloride drug with rare earth (Lanthanides) metal ions La(III),Ce(III),Nd(III),Sm(III),Gd(III),Tb(III) and Dy(III) using pH metric technique in 20%(v/v) ethanol-water mixture at 298K, 308K, 318K and at an ionic strength of 0.1M NaClO4. The method of Calvin and Bjerrum as adopted by Irving and Rossotti has been employed to determine metal-ligand stability constant (logK) values. It is observed that rare earth (Lanthanide) metal ions forms 1:1 and 1:2 complexes.The thermodynamic parameter ΔG, ΔH and ΔS were calculated from values of stability constant at different temperatures. The formations of metal complexes were found to be spontaneous and exothermic in nature.
Urinary Citrate excretion in patients with Urolithiasis
Objective: To determine urinary citrate excretion in patients with urolithiasis and normal controls. A prospective study was coducted at ACPM Medical College, Dhule. Methods: This study was carried out on, 100 normal individuals and 100 kidney stone patients (76males and 24 females) with idiopathic urinary calculi and 100 ages and weight matched controls. The patients were divided into 3 groups: Group 1 (15-30 years), Group 2 (31-45 years) and Group 3 (46-60 years). Urinary citrate was estimated in a 24-hour urine sample using colorimetric method. The stones removed from these Patients were also analysed. Results: There was a preponderance of urinary stones in males; the highest incidence being in Group 2. Excretion of citrate in 24-hour urine sample was significantly lower in patients compared to controls, for males in all age groups and for females. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the urinary citrate value between males and females in a given age group for either controls or patients. The urinary citrate excretion increased with age in patients and controls, but the levels in patients were lower. Depending upon the constituents, four types of stones were identified, calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate, uric acid and magnesium ammonium phosphate. Forty six stones had at least more than one major constituent. Hypocitraturia was detected in 93% cases. The incidence was 72% for calcium phosphate, 89% for calcium oxalate, 36% for uric acid stones and 25% for magnesium ammonium phosphate. Conclusion: This study shows that low urinary citrate is associated with urinary stones in patients, especially in endemic areas, in the absence of obvious etiological factors. Urinary citrate excretion should be determined in all patients with urolithiasis.
Awareness on Type II Diabetes and Its Complication among Sivaganga District Population in Tamilnadu: A Cross Section Survey
Diabetes and its associated complication have been increasing dramatically worldwide. Prevalence of diabetes is higher in developed than in developing countries, however past two decades diabetes mellitus was reported higher in developing countries. Diabetes and its associated complication awareness are lacking, adequate baseline information is mandatory to the public to overcome this problem. Hence the present study was undertaken to assess the knowledge about the awareness of diabetes mellitus and its complication. We conducted a cross sectional and face to face survey on adult’s age group (30-80) in Sivaganga district. The questionnaire includes general status, causes, family history, risk factors and alternative treatment practices. A total of 539 adult were interviewed, 284 were diabetics and 255 were non diabetics. Among diabetic, Fifty three per cent of adults had hyperglycemia. Overall including diabetic and non-diabetics, 74.11% of them were not aware of the long term effects of diabetes and its complication. Merely 48% of them were aware of the alternative treatment practices for diabetes and among the 48% few of them know the diet plan. Statistic analyses were done using SPSS-19 software. Analysis of these areas would have a significant suggestion to health care professionals for conducting future public education programme.
Quality Evaluation and Standardization of An Ayurvedic Formulation Bilvadileha: A Bioanalytical Approach
Bilvadileha; an Ayurvedic semi-solid formulation, is prescribed for the treatment of digestive impairment, tastelessness, emesis and excessive salivation. Though the formula composition and therapeutic claims of Bilvadileha are part of the Ayurvedic Formulary of India, the scientific methods for its quality and safety evaluation are yet to be documented. Hence, in the current work an attempt has been made to evaluate the quality parameters to be used for its preparation and processing. Standard operating procedure for the preparation of Bilvadileha was developed by the amalgamation of traditional methods and scientific tools. Preliminary phytochemicals in Bilvadileha were qualitatively estimated along with determination of crude fibre and reducing sugar content. Chromatographic standardization of Bilvadileha was carried out using HPTLC which included the determination of piperine content in Bilvadileha along with the evaluation of its stability samples stored for different storage periods. Safety of the formulation was affirmed in mice by carrying out acute toxicity study. The quality control parameters resulted after scientific evaluation of Bilvadileha can be used as reference standards by quality control/assurance unit of a pharmaceutical firm in order to have a proper quality check over its preparation and processing.
Analysis of Vanillin In Food Products By High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography
A simple, fast, specific and precise high performance thin layer chromatography method has been developed for the estimation of vanillin in food products. Aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60 GF 254 were used as stationary phase and a mixture of methanol-water-glacial acetic acid in the ratio of 20:05:02 (v/v) as mobile phase. Quantification was carried out by scanning the developed spots using a densitometer in absorbance mode at 275 nm. The Rf value of vanillin was 0.84. The results of the analysis have been validated statistically and by the recovery studies. Linearity was observed in the concentration range of 200-1000 ng/spot.