RECLAMATION OF SALINE SOIL USING GYPSUM, RICE HULL AND SAW DUST IN RELATION TO RICE PRODUCTION
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the potentiality and effectiveness of gypsum, rice hull and saw dust to reclaim and/or improve saline soils collected from coastal areas of Bangladesh. Growth and yield parameters of rice, such as, plant height, 1000-grain weight, grain and straw yield, number of tillers, protein content of grain and harvest index were found to be significantly (p ≤ 0.05) induced by the application of gypsum, rice hull and saw dust. The maximum growth and yield performance of rice were determined by the highest dose (10 t ha-1) of saw dust followed by the highest dose (10 t ha-1) of rice hull. The highest dose of gypsum (400 kg ha-1) was found to be increased the vegetative growth (plant height, tiller production) of rice. The highest value (0.48) of Harvest Index was obtained by the application of rice hull at 10 t ha-1. The highest content of N in rice plants at maturity were found 1.38% with the application of saw dust at the rate of 10 t ha-1, 0.19% for P, 1.41% for K and 0.75% for S with gypsum application at the rate of 400 kg ha-1 . Application of gypsum, rice hull and saw dust at highest dosages increased the uptake of N, P, K and S in rice plant.
REPRODUCTIVE PERIODICITY, FECUNDITY, SEX RATIO AND PARENTAL CARE OF ANGELFISH PTEROPHYLLUM SCALARE (PERCIFORMES: CICHLIDAE) UNDER LABORATORY CONDITION
The present study showed that Pterophyllum scalare breeds within April to May i.e. in summer season in freshwater and laboratory condition. It is a single breeder and highest percentage of gravid female occurs in May (90.91%). Five stages of maturity of ova include immature 0.23±0.08, maturing 0.54±0.11, mature 0.88±0.10, ripe 1.64±0.09 and spent 0.44±0.12. The GSI and GLI ranged from 2.36 to 6.24 and 9.92 to 18.50 respectively. The mature and ripe ova occur April to July, the mean and s.d. in April, May, June and July were 1.66±0.05, 1.59±0.06, 1.47±0.08 and 1.39±0.077 respectively. The relationship between fecundity and total length; fecundity and body weight and fecundity and ovary length were y = 0.003x+99.40; y = 0.005x+11.42 and y = 0.002x+15.97 respectively.
NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF S.AUREUS INFECTIONS IN PATIENTS SUFFERING VENOUS STASIS ULCERS
Local disinfection of stasis ulcers using topical application of povidone iodine (PVP-I) has been reported to be a superior treatment regimen compared to the use of systemic antibiotics. However, contact burns and irritant dermatitis associated with sudden release of large quantities of PVP-I from bandages are a major drawback attributed to the use of this antiseptic. The current study investigates the use of niosomes as micro reservoirs aiding in the slow gradual release of this drug. S.aureus, one of the most common etiological agents associated with stasis ulcers, was chosen as the test organism. Niosomes prepared by thin film hydration technique were characterized using scanning electron microscope and nanoparticle analyzer. Zeta potential of the prepared niosomes was found to be -5.6mV. FTIR studies demonstrated no chemical alteration of the drug subsequent to its encapsulation. Polydispersity index of 0.541 revealed good homogeneity of the prepared formulation. Minimum inhibitory concentration of S.aureus by micro broth dilution technique was found to be 0.30% w/v of available iodine. The entrapment efficiency of PVP-I was found to be 80%. Further, an ex vivo goat skin model used to study the drug release profile revealed the bactericidal effect to extend over 35 hours, thus demonstrating the ability of niosomes to delay drug release.
ANTIBIOTIC UTILIZATION PATTERN IN DENTAL PRACTICE IN AJMAN, UAE: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY
This study was performed to investigate the utilization pattern of antibiotics in dental practice and to determine patient’s perspective and involvement in the dental infection management in super specialty dental center in Gulf Medical College Hospital and Research Center (GMCHRC), Ajman, UAE. Information was collected via a questionnaire regarding the patient’s reason of attendance and treatment undertaken at the dental clinic.
The majority of patients (81.7%) attending the dental clinics was complaining of pain and the main dental indications for which the dentists use antibiotic therapy were acute peri- apical infection was attributed to (47.9%), pericoronitis (12.7%), periodontitis (12%), pulpitis (10.6%). Statistical analysis shows that highly educated patients above 40 years with an average income were significantly aware towards their oral health (P<0.05). (77.5%) were received antibiotic alone or with analgesics. Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (Agumentin) records the highest frequency (46.4%) followed by amoxicillin (27.3%) then metronidazole (18.2%). Patient awareness and perception towards AB therapy was low more than 50% were unaware about allergy, drug resistance and other side effects associated with AB therapy. However employed and educated patients' record significant awareness towards AB therapy P< 0.05.
COMPLEXITY OF SOUND, BISOSCIENCES, SEA STORMS, EARTHQUAKES AND COSMIC EVENTS
Sound in the natural environment form an important class of biologically relevant non-stationary signals. We propose a dynamic spectral measure to characterize the spectral dynamics of such non-stationary sound signals and classify them based on rate of change of spectral dynamics. We categorize sounds with slowly varying spectral dynamics as simple and those with rapidly changing spectral dynamics as complex. We propose rate of spectral dynamics as a possible scheme to categorize sounds in the environment.
SERUM HORMONAL PROFILE AND ITS CLINICAL UTILITY IN BREAST CANCER PATIENTS AMONG TAMIL WOMEN
Breast cancer is mostly hormone dependent. The present research work was aimed to investigate the hormonal profile and its clinical significance among breast cancer patients of Tamil women. This study comprises of 75 breast cancer patients divided into 3 stages namely, non-metastatic, metastatic and post-treatment groups. Three sex steroid hormones namely Estradiol (E2), progesterone and testosterone; three Gonadotrophins namely, Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Leutenising hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (β - hCG) and one peptide hormone, prolactin was estimated. Significant elevation was found in the level of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone in non-metastatic and metastatic groups. Among gonadotrophins, human chorionic gonadotrophin (β- hCG) has shown marked elevation in metastasis. Prolactin (PRL) was also significantly elevated in non-metastatic and metastatic groups. In post treatment group, reduction was observed in the levels of almost all hormones with estrogen and prolactin being predominant. Since marked variation was found in the level of estrogen before and after treatment, it may serves as a powerful predictive parameter of breast cancer and in disease prognosis. β- hCG may be used as an indicator of metastasis. PRL level may be used to predict the disease response to therapy.
ISOLATION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS FROM FULL CREAM POWDER MILK SOLD UNDER MARKET CONDITIONS AT DHAKA, BANGLADESH AND THEIR ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY
Milk and milk products are ideal foods for all age groups in both rural and urban people all around the world. This study reports microbiological status of powder milk samples and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from powder milk samples collected from different area of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Twelve samples were collected and seven of them were found acceptable according to codex Alimentarius and ICMSF in terms of total viable count and total coliform. E. coli was isolated from 11 samples and Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 6 samples. E. coli isolated were resistant to 5 antibiotics and Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to 6 antibiotics. Hygienic conditions during production and post-processing should be improved according to HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) guidelines to improve the microbiological quality and safety of powder milk products.
ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF PHYSALIS ANGULATA EXTRACTS AND FRACTIONS IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
The antidiabetic activity of aqueous methanolic and column fractions from whole plant of Physalis angulata L., an edible plant used for treating various diseases, were evaluated in the oral glucose tolerance test and in alloxan induced diabetic rats and compared to effects of glibenclamide. A dose of the methanolic extract and its column fractions were administered to experimental diabetic rats and their blood glucose levels monitored over 7 days using glucometer. The extract exhibited significant blood sugar lowering effect in the glucose tolerance test and in the alloxan diabetic rats. Fraction F3, which produced improved activity compared to the crude extract, recorded significant reduction of blood glucose levels on day 7 of treatment (58.6% decrease; p < 0.05) at concentration of 500mg/kg. The hypoglycaemic effect was more pronounced in the hyperglycaemic rats than in normoglycaemic conditions. This plant holds potential for therapeutic application.
PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF MESALAMINE SUPPOSITORIES USING SAL FAT AS NOVEL BASE
Conventional immediate release rectal suppositories of Mesalamine were prepared by using Sal fat as a novel and cost effective suppository base. The prepared suppositories were evaluated for in- vitro drug release by comparison with suppositories formulated using cocoa butter as standard base. Four formulations were prepared by incorporating different combinations of Sal fat, emulsifying wax and tween 80. Methyl paraben and propyl paraben were used as preservatives. All the suppositories were evaluated for different parameters like micro and macro melting range, softening and liquefaction temperature and time, hardness and disintegration time. In-vitro drug release studies were carried out by USP type I apparatus. The prepared suppositories were also subjected to stability testing. The prepared suppositories were within the permissible limits of all the physical parameters. In-vitro drug release studies of optimized formulation showed more than 70% of drug release within 20 min and maximum release of 94.81% within 30 min of the dissolution studies. The drug release studies were found to be comparable to the suppositories prepared by using cocoa butter as standard base. Stability studies also revealed satisfactory results. Thus the overall study and results suggested that Sal fat can be used as economical suppository base as well as cost effective excipient for other pharmaceutical formulations.
PHYTOTHERAPY APPROACH FOR THE TREATMENT OF GYNAECOLOGICAL DISORDER AMONG WOMEN IN IDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IBADAN, OYO STATE, NIGERIA
Ethno-gynaecology is an important field of study relevant to women’s reproductive health care. Within the Ido communities in lesser Ibadan, traditional remedies are integral part of the cultural and religious life of the people who are mainly of Yoruba origin. This study reports the phytotherapy information for the treatment of gynecological disorder among women in Ido local government in Ibadan. The structured questionnaires were used to gather information in these local governments, while descriptive analysis was used for data analysis. The villages depend on the herbal medicines for healing of various gynaecological disorders. Nine species(Gossypium arboretum, Heinsia crinita, Ficus carica, Nicotiana tobacum, Datura metel, Triclisia subcordata, Allium sativum, sorghum bicolor, Casia tora, Perquentina nigrescens and carica papaya) were identified for the healing of gynaecological disorders among women. The local names, binomial names, parts used and method of administration were documented. This investigation indicates that 60% of the people used leaves to cure while majority of people used tincture (40%), and Decoction (26.7%). A wide spectra of herbal traditional remedies are available to regulate the menstrual cycle, enhance fertility and as either abortifacients or anti-abortifacients. Further studies were suggested to validate the claims and herbal drug development for treatment of such disorder.