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Sciensage

2012-Vol 3-Issue 1

Editorial

GOING GREEN: AN ECOFRIENDLY DRIVE FOR THE SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

We enter our office building and go straight to the parking lot. What do we get to see there? Parking is not allowed in the basement. Just to increase vegetation. Not only this, there are preferred car parking areas for car pooling vehicles and recharge stations for alternative fuel vehicles. Now imagine this! Our office uses sensitive air conditioners that automatically alter the room temperature depending upon the number of people in the room. It also uses eco-friendly paint on walls. The structure of the building is in such a way that it uses 95 per cent natural light. Well, don‟t be surprised we are simply working in a green environment!

Dr Raaz Maheshwari

Department of Chemistry, SKGC (University of Rajasthan), Sikar, Rajasthan, India

Review Articles

HAZARDS OF MERCURY POISONING & PREVENTION STRATEGIES

In the long history of water pollution, the Minamata incident was unique. The mystery of the existence of methylmercury in sea fish was baffling at first since the source was inorganic mercury compound discharged into the Bay by the Minamata chemical company (Japan). The missing link between inorganic mercury in Bay water and methyl mercury in sea fish was bridged only after extensive research since the 1950s. This is the first known case where the natural bioaccumulation (in fish) of toxic material (methyl mercury) killed about hundred people and genetically damaged a large population

Bina Rani, Upma Singh, A K Chauhan, Raaz Maheshwari

Department of Engineering Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, PCE, Sitapura, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

AN OVERVIEW ON IMMUNOMODULATION

The immune system is a complex and highly developed system, yet its mission is simple: to seek and kill invaders. Immunomodulation is the process of modifying an immune response in a positive or negative manner by administration of a drug or compound. Many proteins, amino acids, and natural compounds have shown a significant ability to regulate immune responses, including interferon-γ (IFN-γ), steroids, DMG. This review comprises a summary on immunomodulation introduction, immunodeficiency and drug therapy.

Priyanka Saroj*, Mansi Verma, K. K. Jha, Manju pal

Department of Pharmacology, Teerthankar Mahaveer College of Pharmacy, Teerthankar Mahaveer University, Moradabad, U.P., India

A SHORT REVIEW ON NANOTECHOLOGY- THE NEW TREND IN THE MEDICAL FIELD

Nanotechnology is the new trend in the drug delivery system in the biomedical and pharmacy field. This review deals with the prospectives of nanomaterials application related to biology and medicine and secondly it gives an overview, commercialization and development in the medical field.

Piyush Yadav*, Rupali Singh

Department of Pharmacy, Prasad Institute of Technology, Punchatia, Jaunpur, U.P., India

PERILS OF ELECTRONIC WASTE: ISSUES AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the most popular growing issues of the world. The term e-waste is for the collection of old discarded computers, TVs, Refrigerators,, radios – basically any electrical or electronic appliance that has reached its end-of-life. While e-waste contains both valuable materials such as gold, palladium, silver and copper, it also contains harmful metals like lead, cadmium and mercury. In the absence of suitable techniques and protective measures, recycling e-waste can result in toxic emissions to the air, water and soil and pose a serious health and environmental hazard. In India, e-waste is mostly generated in large cities like Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore. In these cities a complex e-waste handling infrastructure has developed mainly based on a long tradition of waste recycling. But the problem is that these recycling processes are extremely harmful and have negative impacts on the worker‟s health and the environment. 

Bina Rani, Upma Singh, Raaz Maheshwari, A K Chauhan

Department of Engineering Chemistry & Environmental Engineering, PCE, Sitapura, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW

Today about 74% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improve such characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. The transdermal route of drug delivery has attracted researchers due to many biomedical advantages associated with it. However, excellent impervious nature of skin is the greatest challenge that has to be overcome for successfully delivering drug molecules to the systemic circulation by this route. Drug delivery through the skin to achieve a systemic effect of a drug is commonly known as transdermal drug delivery and differs from traditional topical drug delivery. The development of transdermal drug delivery systems is a multidisciplinary activity that encompasses fundamental feasibility studies starting from the selection of a drug molecule to the demonstration of sufficient drug flux in an ex vivo and/or in vivo model the fabrication of a drug delivery system that meets all the stringent needs that are specific to the drug molecule (physicochemical and stability factors), the patient (comfort and cosmetic appeal), the manufacturer (scale-up and manufacturability), and most important, the economy. This review article provides an overview of TDDS, its advantages over conventional dosage forms, drug delivery routes across human skin, penetration enhancers, various components of Transdermal patches, types of Transdermal patches.

Ramteke K.H., Dhole S.N., Patil S.V.

Modern College of Pharmacy (For Ladies), Moshi, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Research Articles

STUDIES ON THE ISOTHERMS, KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMICS OF ADSORPTION OF CRYSTAL VIOLET ON LOW COST MATERIALS

The low cost adsorbent namely Cassia Siamea (CS), Albizia Labbeck (AL), Nerium Indicum (NI), Durauta Erecta (DE), and Potato Husk (PH) have been tested for the effectiveness in declourisation of wastewater containing a crystal violet dye (CV) by an adsorption technique. The various parameters such as contact time, dye concentration, temperature, adsorbent dosage, pH and ionic strength were applied for the study. The equilibrium was attained within 50 min, the adsorption of the dye on solution was studied in the pH range 2-7, the salt dosage was increased from 0.05 to 0.5 g. Adsorption was carried out at different temperature in the range of 293 to 333 K±0.5K It was observed that the adsorption increase with increasing in time, solution pH and dosage (g). It was also observed that adsorption decreases with increase in CV concentration and the addition of salt. The kinetic data were then fitted using both Pseudo –first order model and second order model, Langmuir and Freundlich models were often used to describe equilibrium adsorption isotherms and the thermodynamic parameters, change in enthalpy (ΔH) (KJ/mol) and change in entropy (ΔS) (J/mol) which related to the Gibbs free energy (ΔG).

Abdo Taher, Mohd Mohsin, Mazahar Farooqui, Maqdoom Farooqui

Post Graduate and Research Center, Maulana Azad College, Aurangabad, India

EVALUATION OF TESTICULAR TOXICITY OF BUTACHLOR (A CHLOROACETANILIDE HERBICIDE) IN RATS

Butachlor, a chloroacetanilide herbicides, widely used in agriculture by farmers was evaluated to determine its effects on testes of rats. Oral administration of butachlor at dose level of 200 mg/kg b.wt./day for 30 day leads to alterations in the testes. Haematological studies showed decrease in erythrocyte count, haematocrit and haemoglobin levels while an increase was noticed in leukocytes count, blood urea and blood sugar. The weight of testes and accessory sex organs decreased significantly. Butachlor administration brought about marked reduction in sperm counts. A significant reduction in glycogen and sialic acid and an increase in protein and cholesterol content of testes were noticed. Histological examination revealed shrunken seminiferous tubules exhibiting loosened epithelium and reduced number of spermatozoa. Fertility test showed 90% negative fertility in treated rats. In addition, acid phosphatase enzyme activity increased significantly whereas alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity showed sharp decline. It also suppressed testosterone, FSH and LH levels significantly. In conclusion, butachlor has deleterious effects on male reproduction.

Suresh C. Joshi*, Priya Tibrewal, Aksha Sharma, Priyanka Sharma

Reproductive Toxicology Unit, Center for advanced studies, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India

STUDIES ON THE PRODUCTION OF MUSABBAR FROM ALOE VERA

Musabbar, a solid powder has been prepared from the processed leaves juice of Aloe vera by a developed technology for the use in Unani, Ayurvedic and many modern medicinal preparations and also in some popular cosmetic products. The physico-chemical constants and mineral contents of the product are ascertained. The analysis of mineral (metal and non-metal) contents revealed that sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron are all present in significant quantity with trace or no heavy metals. The florescence analysis of musabbar has been observed through ultraviolet light. The minerals are determined by flame photometer, atomic absorption spectrometer. The phytochemical investigation of pet. ether, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, di-chloro methane and aqueous methanol extracts of the product are carried out for identifying the presence of possible classes of active compounds.

Md. Zahurul Haque*, Md. Abdur Rouf, Md. Abdul Jalil, Md. Badrul Islam, Md. Monarul Islam, Md. Aminul Ahsan

Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR), Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF LIMBOTI DAM WATER, DIST. NANDED, MAHARASHTRA

The Physico chemical parameter of surface water from Limboti dam of Nanded Dist (India) is determined during August 2009 to July 2010. The Physico chemical parameters are pH, electrical conductance, DO, BOD, COD, TDS, total hardness, total alkalinity, turbidity; anions includes chlorides, fluorides, sulphates and metal cations such as magnesium, sodium, potassium, boron etc. All the parameters are found to be within the permissible limit.

Sayyed Hussain*, Vinod Mane, Vidya Pradhan, Mazahar Farooqui

P G Dept of Chemistry, Sir Sayyed College, Aurangabad (MS), India

EFFECT OF OXALIS CORNICULATA WHOLE PLANT EXTRACTS ON FERTILITY REGULATION IN FEMALE ALBINO RATS

Aim of the present study is to find out novel fertility regulation agent from natural products. Petroleum ether and ethanol extract of whole plant of Oxalis corniculata (Oxalidaceae) were tested for fertility regulation studies in female albino rats at the dose level of 10 and 20 mg petroleum ether and ethanol extract per 100 gm body weight administered orally from day 1-7 of pregnant rats for antiimplantation activity and also for immature ovariectomised rats for estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity. The dose level of 10 and 20 mg of petroleum ether extract inhibited 39.71% and 76.42% implantation sites respectively. Similarly, 10 and 20 mg of ethanol extract treatment has resulted in 27.87% and 38.21% inhibition of implantation respectively. In estrogenic activity, the uterus of treated rats showed significant increase in the gravimetric and micrometric measurements, indicating its estrogenicity. When both the extracts were tested in immature rats the estrogenic activity has been confirmed by early opening of vagina, cornification of vaginal epithelial cells and increase in uterine weight. Antiimplantation activity of O. corniculata is due to its estrogenic nature, therefore, it may be concluded that both the activities revealed their possible fertility regulation.

Sharangouda J. Patil*, Saraswati B. Patil

Reproductive Biology Laboratory,Department of Post-Graduate Studies and Research in Zoology, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga, Karnataka, India.

A NOVEL AND RAPID HPTLC METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF CITALOPRAM HYDROBROMIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM – DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION

Aim of the present investigation was to develop and validated a new, simple, sensitive, selective and precise High Performance Thin Layer Chromatograpic (HPTLC) method for the determination of Citalopram HBr in tablet dosage form. TLC aluminium sheets pre coated with silica gel 60F-254 were used as the stationary phase and Methanol:Water:Ethyl acetate (4:2:4) was used as the mobile phase for the linear ascending development carried out in twin trough glass chamber at room temperature (25±20C). Spectrodensitometric scanning and analysis in absorbance mode at 240nm were carried out using CAMAG TLC Scanner 3. Compact spots for Citalopram HBr were observed having Rf value of 0.46±0.02. Linear regression analysis of the data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship in the concentration range of 2-12mcg/spot with respect to peak area and r value was found to be 0.9960. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines for accuracy calculated as % recovery was in the range of 98.63% to 101.72%. The statistical analysis of the data showed that the method is reproducible and selective for the estimation of Citalopram HBr in tablet dosage form during routine analysis.

C. Saravanan, M.Thamizhmozhi*, C. A. Suresh Kumar, C. Sudhakar, Bandaru Rajesh, G. Senthil Kumar

Aadhi Bhagawan College of Pharmacy, Rantham, Cheyyar, Tamilnadu, India

INHIBITION OF CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASE-2 AND GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE KINASE-3 BY HERBAL DERIVATIVE 1, 2-DISUBSTITUTED IDOPYRANOSE THROUGH IN-SILICO ANALYSIS

Cyclin dependant kinase-2 (CDK-2) is a key regulator of cell cycle progression and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) that plays a critical role in the regulatory pathway of serine/threonine kinase, which is being targeted for the treatment of human cancer. The natural product of 1, 2 disubstituted idopyranose (C23H28O12) was isolated from the leaves of the medicinal plant, Vitex negundo to treat human cancer. The bioactive compound of functionalized 1, 2 disubstituted idopyranose was studied through molecular docking and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against CDK2 and GSK3 using GLIDE module and also ADME/T properties of the analog was analyzed using QikProp module. Based on the docking studies, we have identified some key features in the 1, 2 disubstituted idopyranose that is responsible for simulations of a promising lead compound for the inhibition of CDK-2 and GSK-3 inhibitory activity. The 1, 2 disubstituted idopyranose, which showed docked energy -33.82 kcal/mol demonstrated against CDK-2 (2c4g) and docked energy -55.94 kcal/mol demonstrated against GSK-3 (3f7z). A series of 1, 2 disubstituted idopyranose demonstrated good inhibition against CDK-2 and GSK-3 and are useful candidates as leads for the development of potential anti-carcinogenic agents.

Pappu Srinivasan*, Ramar Manikandan, Cinnasamy Arulvasu

Department of Bioinformatics, Department of Animal Health & Management, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu, India

SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC AND CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID AND CAFFEINE IN PURE AND IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM

In the present research paper, spectrophotometric and chromatographic assay method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of acetylsalicylic acid and caffeine in bulk and commercial tablets. Acetylsalicylic acid and caffeine showed absorbance maxima at 228 and 275 nm in 0.1N HCl and at 225 and 272 nm in methanol, respectively. These drugs were estimated in formulations by simultaneous equation method (method A) and absorbance ratio method (method B). Acetylsalicylic acid and caffeine at their respective λmax followed Beer-Lambert’s law at concentration range of 0-28 and 0-1.6 μg/mL. Method B involved measurement of absorbance at isoabsoptive point of these two drugs i.e. at 244 nm in 0.1N HCl and at 240 nm in methanol respectively. 

Sonali S. Bharate*, Sandip B. Bharate

Department of Pharmaceutics, P.E. Society’s Modern College of Pharmacy, Dehu-Alandi Road, Moshi, Pune, Maharashtra, India

ANALYSIS OF EFFLUENTS RELEASED FROM RECYCLED PAPER INDUSTRY

Waste Water and nearby soil samples of recycled paper industry are collected from Northern districts of UP viz. Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar & Meerut and analyzed for various parameters like pH, TDS, TVS, TSS, TFS, TRC, TS, BOD, COD, Chloride, DO. The inferences were drawn on the basis of analysis. The very high absorbance in the region 200-300nm value suggests that these effluents are not fit to be disposed to the water stream as these effluents will result in increase of organic load in water streams. The present manuscript reports the investigation of the characteristics of effluents released from recycled paper mills of UP state to access the pollution load of recycling paper mills on the environment.

Raaz Maheshwari*, Bina Rani, Archana Saxena, Magan Prasad, Upma Singh

Department of Chemistry, SBRMGC, Nagaur, Rajasthan, India

APPLICATION OF POLY-3 (METHYL THIOPHENE)-SAWDUST NANO COMPOSITE FOR REMOVAL OF ANIONIC CARMOISINE DYE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

In this study the adsorption behavior of sawdust (SD) coated with poly-3 (methyl thiophene) as a synthetic adsorbent (P3MTh/SD) for separation of carmoisine (an anionic dye) from water solutions was investigated. The morphology of sorbents was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Various experiments have been carried out using batch adsorption technique to study the effects of the main parameters such as contact time, initial dye concentration, pH, dye solution temperature on the adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption attained to equilibrium in 60 min. Isotherm study conformed well to Freundlich equation and the monolayer sorption capacity obtained from the Langmuir model was 2.77 and 21.64 mg/g for SD and P3MTh/SD, respectively. The kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption of carmoisine on both sorbents follows pseudo-second order kinetic. From thermodynamic studies, it was observed that the adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. P3MTh/SD was found to be very effective adsorbent in wastewater treatment for removal of carmoisine dye.

Reza Ansari*, Mahnaz Saghanejhad Tehrani, Esfandyar Alizadeh

Department of Chemistry, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A POLYHERBAL PREPARATION FOR PREVENTING ASTHMA IN RATS

The objective of the research work was to prepare a polyherbal preparation with multi directing mechanisms targeting on Asthma. Most commonly used herbs like Glycyrrhiza glabra, Allium cepa and Clerrodendrum serratum which were collected from Attar bohra shop, Mandsaur with hydroalcoholic (50:50) solvent and further combined in equal proportion so as to prepare a polyherbal preparation (F1). Further F1 at 200 and 400 mg/Kg were evaluated for acute toxicity and Anti asthmatic activity. These herbs have expectorant, anti oxidant and anti inflammatory, anti histaminic effects respectively which are in turn useful parameters against asthma. Guinea pig tracheal chain proved helpful in evaluating the efficacy of the preparation as compared to other marketed ayurvedic and allopathic medications. Also Broncho Alveolar Lavage fluid was observed for eosinophilic and macrophage count estimation. Airway hyper responsiveness in response to Methacholine administration proved beneficial for the study. This was further supported by lung tissue histology. Bronchial muscle relaxation was seen as well as inflammation due to free radicals and cytokines exhibited a marked decline.

Tulsiani Puja

Department of Pharmacology, B.R. Nahata College of Pharmacy, Mhow-Neemach Road, Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh, India

RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH TO OPTIMIZE THE NUTRITIONAL PARAMETERS FOR ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF LIPOPEPTIDE BIOSURFACTANT IN SUBMERGED CULTURE BY B. SUBTILIS SPB1

Nutritional requirements can contribute considerably to the production cost and the bioprocess economics. Media optimisation using response surface methodology is one of the used methods to ameliorate the bioprocess economics. In the present study, biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis SPB1 was effectively enhanced by response surface methodology. A Plackett–Burman-based statistical screening procedure was adopted to determine the most important factor affecting lipopeptide production. Eleven variables are screened and results show that glucose, K2HPO4 and urea concentrations influence the most biosurfactant production. A Central Composite Design was conducted to optimize the three selected factors. Statistical analyses of the data of model fitting were done by using SPSS and NemrodW software packages. Results show a maximum predicted biosurfactant concentration of 2.93 (±0.32) g/l, when using 15 g/l glucose, 7.5 g/l urea and 1 g/l K2HPO4. The predicted value is approximately 1.65 much higher than the original production determined by the conventional one-factor-at-a-time optimization method.

Ines Mnif, Semia Ellouze-Chaaboun and Dhouha Ghribi

Unité Enzymes et Bioconversion , National School of Engineers of Sfax, Tunisia

INFLUENCE OF GROWTH PARAMETERS ON BIODELIGNIFICATION OF EUCALYPTUS TERETICORNIS BY SCHIZOPHYLLUM COMMUNE

Pulp and paper industry use different chemicals to separate cellulose fibre from lignocellulosic biomass for papermaking. The use of sodium sulphide and chlorine during pulping and bleaching processes, have now been classified as the main sources of air and water pollution in the pulp and paper industry. To surmount these problems biological processing, offers potential opportunities for changing the industry towards more environment friendly industry. In the biological pulping process, removal of lignin can be achieved through treatment of lignocellulosic materials with white rot fungi due to their ability to degrade complex and recalcitrant organic molecules and this makes them attractive micro-organism for biodelignification. In the present study biological pre-treatment of Eucalyptus chips was carried out with Schizophyllum commune. The influence of growth parameters like incubation periods, moisture levels, media, media concentration, pH and temperature were also optimized. During the study it was found that Schizophyllum commune shows 14.72% lignin loss within 28 days at optimum conditions i.e. pH (6.0), temperature (250C), moisture (60%) and molasses concentration (4%). Thus the study will provide an insight to find out economically feasible conditions to commercialize biopulping on large scale.

Richa Gupta, R.P. Bhatt, B.P. Thapliyal, Sanjay Naithani, Vipin Kumar Saini

Department of Botany and Microbiology, H.N.B Garhwal University Srinagar, Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India

IN- VIVO EVALUATION FOR ANTHELMINTIC EFFECT OF ALKALOIDS EXTRACTED FROM THE STEM BARK OF AFZELIA AFRICANA IN RATS

The anthelmintic activity of alkaloid extracted from the stem bark of Afzelia africana was evaluated in-vivo in rats experimentally infected with Nippostrongylus braziliensis. The alkaloids was obtained after partitioning the crude methanolic extract of the plant powdered material in petroleum ether, chloroform and N-butanol as solvent and subsequently subjecting them to phytochemical screening to identify the portions with the highest concentration of alkaloids which was then used in the study. The phytochemical screening shows that the amount of alkaloids was higher in chloroform and N-butanol portions. The anthelmintic activity was assessed by comparing the number of worms recovered from rats treated with the fractions to those from non-treated infected controls.

Simon MK*, Nafanda WD, Obeta SS

Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Abuja, Nigeria

ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CYNODON DACTYLON LEAVES AGAINST EHRLICH ASCITES INDUCED CARCINOMA IN MICE

The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of leaves of Cynodon dactylon against Ehrlich ascitic Lymphoma (ELA) in Swiss albino mice. The tumor was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of EAC (1X106cells/mouse). Methanolic extract of cynodon dactylon was administered to the experimental animals at a dose of 80μg/kg/day after 24 h of tumor inoculation. The antitumor effect of extract was evaluated by assessing in vitro cytotoxicity, hematological parameters and liver enzymes. The methanolic extract brought back the altered levels of the hematological parameters and liver enzymes. Thus the present study revealed that methanolic extract of Cynodon dactylon possessed significant antitumor activity and hepatoprotective effect.

Saroja Marappan*, Annapoorani Subramaniyan

Department of Biochemistry, Avinashilingam University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India


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