Chemistry Goes Green
Green chemistry emerged in the 1990s when research increasingly focused on the development of environmentally benign alternatives to hazardous chemical processes. This was prompted by a rising awareness of the costs of waste in industries, and the need for cleaner chemical manufacturing in governments. Through a combination of targeted research funding, tougher legislation and awards for best practice, the green chemistry movement quickly gained momentum and helped nurture what are now well-recognized clean technologies in process chemistry.
Febuxostat, a Non-Purine Selective Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor in The Management of Hyperuricemia and Chronic Gout: A Systematic Review
Febuxostat is a novel, potent, non-purine selective xanthine oxidase inhibitor which got approved for marketing in the year late 2009 by Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO), India. Systematic search of trials/studies from PubMed and Cochrane database lead to 11 trials which demonstrated its superior ability to lower and maintain serum urate levels below 6 mg/dl compared with conventionally used doses of allopurinol for gout. Almost 45% of studies were of high quality according to Jadad score which proves the studies to be more authentic and reliable. The most common adverse reactions reported were abnormal liver function tests, headache, and gastrointestinal symptoms which were usually mild and transient. However, hepatotoxicity becomes a limitation in the use of febuxostat. Febuxostat seems to be a promising alternative for prescribing in primary care patients who are intolerant to allopurinol or to whom allopurinol is contraindicated but it should be associated with further long term surveillance for its safety and efficacy.
HPLC: Isocratic or Gradient Elution and Assessment of Linearity In Analytical Methods
The aim of pharmaceutical analysis is to obtain the necessary qualitative and quantitative information about the investigated sample. HPLC is the dominant separation technique in modern pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis because it results in highly efficient separations and in most cases provides high detection sensitivity. Chromatographic optimization procedures are becoming more multidisciplinary to obtain more and more information on the separations which may be isocratic or gradient. During validation of analytical methods a correlation coefficient close to unity (r = 1) is considered sufficient evidence to conclude that the experimenter has a perfect linear calibration since it is common practice to check the linearity of a calibration curve by inspection of the correlation coefficient. The aim of the presented review is divided into two parts, first is to compare isocratic and gradient elution and to propose suitable statistical procedures to access linearity of the analytical method. We found that many of the previous reasons for avoiding gradient elution (i.e. long re-equilibration times, poor precision and difficult optimization) appear much too pessimistic and linear functional analysis or lack of fitness test as another suitable statistical tool to evaluate linearity of the analytical method. Some other validation parameters are also discussed here in brief.
Clinical Analysis for Haemoglobin, Glucose, Cholesterol, Uric Acid Level in Blood and Blood Pressure Using Biosensors
Manual methods of clinical diagnosis are labour -intensive, costly, prone to error, and expose the caregiver to blood. To eradicate the disadvantage in manual methods we are going for the Biosensor technology (BT).BT offers several benefits over conventional diagnostic analysis. They include simplicity of use, specificity for the target analyze, speed to arise to a result, capability for continuous monitoring and ultiplexing, together with the potentiality of coupling to low-cost, portable instrumentation. Here we are going to design All in one Blood monitoring system which monitors the Blood Haemoglobin, glucose, cholesterol, uric acid, pressure level Using Enzyme electrodes and Pulse oximeter and the data acquisition is made easy by introducing a microcontroller and computed out.
Halloysite Nanotubes and Applications: A Review
Various successful results of nanotechnology like carbon nanotubes, nanofluids, nanoparticles, nano emulsions, nano capsules, etc are not considered to be safe for humans as well as for environment because of their toxicology potencies. Halloysite nanotubes are naturally occurring eco-friendly nanotubes with low cost that are harmless to human. Halloysite Nanotubes (HNTs) are unique and versatile nanomaterials composed of double layered aluminosilicate minerals with a predominantly hollow tubular structure in submicron range. They are nontoxic in nature, have tuneable release rates and fast adsorption rates. These nanotubes have got wide range of applications in anticancer therapy, sustained delivery for certain agents, act as template or nanoreactor for biocatalyst, have found use in personal care and cosmetics and even used as environment protective.
Huntington’s Disease: Clinical Complexities and Therapeutic Strategies
Named after physician George Huntington, Huntington's disease (HD) is an adult onset, rare, progressive, fatal, neurodegenerative autosomal dominant disorder, clinically characterized by abnormal movements, dementia, and psychiatric syndromes. The mechanisms by which neuronal degeneration and cell death are being generated in HD may include excitotoxicity, energy deficit, oxidative stress, inflammatory processes, and protein aggregation. Genetically, HD is caused by expanded CAG repeat in the Huntington gene which encodes an abnormally long polyglutamine repeat in the Huntington protein. HD share several of feature of other neurodegenerative disorders like delayed onset, selective neuronal vulnerability, abnormal protein aggregation and processing and cellular toxic effects involving both cell autonomous and cell cell interaction. In the brain, the basal ganglia (caudate and the putamen) is highly affected which organize muscle-driven movements of the body or motor movement. The disease is characterized by a primary progressive loss of medium spiny projection neurons within the basal ganglia. Unfortunately, there is no cure. Management should be multidisciplinary and is based on treating symptoms with a view to improving quality of life. Chorea is treated with dopamine receptor blockingor depleting agents. Medication and non-medical care for depression and aggressive behavior may be required. The progression of the disease leads to a complete dependency in daily life, which results in patients requiring fulltime care, and finally death. The most common cause of death is pneumonia, followed by suicide.
Quantum Chemical Studies on The Efficiencies of Vinyl Imidazole Derivatives as Corrosion Inhibitors For Mild Steel
The corrosion inhibition characteristics of two vinyl imidazole derivatives, ie., 2,4,5-triphenyl-1-vinyl-1H-imidazole (C1) and 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-diphenyl-1-vinyl-1H-imidazole(C2), on mild steel has been studied using Density functional theory (DFT).Quantum chemical parameters such as EHOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital energy), ELUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy), the energy gap(ΔE), hardness(η), Softness(S), dipole moment(μ), electron affinity(EA), ionization potential(IE), the absolute electronegativity (χ) , electrophilicity index(ω) and the fraction of electron transferred (ΔN) have been calculated using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) basis set. The local reactivity has been studied through the Fukui and condensed softness indices in order to predict both the reactive centres and to know the possible sites of nucleophilic and electrophilic attacks. The obtained correlations and theoretical conclusions agree well with the experimental data.
Production of Kalomegh Syrup and Studies on Its Toxic Activities
Kalomegh syrup was prepared from ethanolic extract of kalomegh (Andrographis paniculata) leaves .The recipe composition and specification of the product has been ascertained. A toxicity test of the product has also been performed on a group of mice. Results revealed that the physical movement and growth of treated and untreated mice are normal. The hematological and bio-molecule parameters like, RBC, WBC, serum glucose, serum protein, serum cholesterol, serum creatinine etc. have been measured and found no significant or adverse effect. The product is found to be useful in anti-fever and anti-toxic. It has been uses in case of bacillary dysentery, respiratory infections, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, nephritis and also for dermatological diseases like crusty tetter and herpes and helminthic intestinal infestation.
Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Investigation of Gamma-Irradiated Antibiotic Azithromycin
The use of ionizing radiation for sterilization of pharmaceutical is now a well established technology. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the degradation Gamma- damage in the microcrystalline powder from antibiotic Azithroomycin (AZ) before and after exposure to 5 up to 25 KGy absorbed dose. ESR measurements proved various stable paramagnetic species after irradiation and relative yielding of free radicals depends on the absorbed gamma dose. The thermal behavior and their assignments of (AZ) were studies by using (DTA, TG) and Infra red. Some spectroscopic and thermal properties and suggestions concerning possible structure of the radicals are discussed in this paper.
Production of Xanthan from Agro-Industrial Waste
Xanthan are water soluble Exopolysaccharides produced by Xanthomonas species. These polysaccharides have much common application and normally produced in submerged fermentation by using different carbon sources. Solid state fermentation offers numerous advantages for the production of bulk chemicals and enzymes. An attempt to synthesize Xanthan from agro-industrial wastes by solid state fermentation yielded a dry weight of 2.9 gm/50gm of substrate when fermented by Xanthomonas citri, 2.87 gm by standard strain Xanthomonas campestries (MTCC) 2286 and 1.5 gm by Xanthomonas oryzae. Potato peel was employed as carbon substrate in which X. Citri produced high amount of Xanthan. The recovered xanthan was checked for its purity and composition by chemical analysis and structural analysis by FT-IR. TLC and HPLC confirmed the sugars in isolated Xanthan while FTIR ensured the presence of uronic acids. This work emphasizes the possibility of using agricultural wastes as lower cost alternative substrates for Xanthan production which is a widely used food additive.
Variation in Lipid Classes and Fatty Acid Content During Ovarian Maturation of Albunea Symmysta
Variation in lipid classes and fatty acid profiles were studied during different developmental stages of ovary of Albunea symmysta. The values of neutral, phospho and glycolipid were recorded high (10.00.001, 14.70.002, 21.00.002) at ripen stage and declined (3.20.001, 5.40.002, 10.50.001) at spent stage. The concentration of lauric, myristic, palmitic and lignoceric acid reached high at ripen stage (stage IV) (0.144, 0.816, 15.92 and 1.514 %) and those acid concentration were lowered (0.118, 0. 380, 2.568, and 0.872 %) at spent stage (stage V). The concentration of stearic, arachidic and behanic acid were fluctuated in the stage III and IV (4.027- 0.683, 1.872-1.832 and 3.815-3.869 %) and lowered (0.925, 0.961, 1.905 %) The palmitolic acid values were fluctuated (0.673-0.626 %) in the stage III and IV and its concentration was lowered (0.225 %) at spent stage. The oleic acid concentration was recorded higher than that of all other fatty acids and its values increased (42.27 %) at ripen stage and declined (18.52 %) at spent stage. All the polyunsaturated fatty acids were fluctuated in the ripening stage (especially stage III & IV) and those acids value reached maximum at the stage III and lowered at spent stage.
Anthelmintic Activity of Moringa Oleifera Seed Oil - Validation of Traditional Use
Oil of Moringa oleifera was subjected to anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma. Oil of Moringa oleifera was tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml) was used as a reference standard and distilled water as a control group. Oil of Moringa oleifera showed potent activity and comparable to the standard used.
Evaluation of Ageratum Houstonianum Whole Plant For Its Anti Diabetic Activity
In the present study the hydro alcoholic extract of whole plant of Ageratum houstonianum was investigated for its anti diabetic activity at two dose levels on both alloxan induced diabetic rats and normoglycaemic rats. The blood glucose levels were estimated in both alloxan induced hyperglycaemic and normoglycaemic rats. The acclimatized animals were kept fasting for 24 h with water ad libitum and injected a dose of 120 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate in normal saline intraperitoneally. Test extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg and glibenclamide at 2.5 mg/kg was administered. Blood glucose level was estimated at 0 h, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 8 h respectively. Hydro alcoholic extract of A. houstonianum whole plant was found to produce significant (p<0.01) reduction in blood glucose concentration between 2-4 hours of administration in both alloxan induced hyper glycaemic and normoglycaemic rats at 400 mg/kg dose. When compared with the reference control glibenclamide, the extract caused noticeable reduction in the blood glucose level in both classes of animals which was demonstrated in above methods. Hence, from the above results it can be concluded that, Ageratum houstonianum whole plant extract showing good anti diabetic activity.
Theoretical Evaluation of Corrosion Inhibition Performance of Some Triazole Derivatives
In this present paper, we have made an attempt to explain the adsorption mechanism and inhibition performance of two triazole derivatives, ie., 4-(benzylideneamino)-3-propyl-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole(BIPMT) and 4-(salicylidene amino)-3-propyl-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (SIPMT), on mild steel using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level. Quantum chemical parameters such as EHOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital energy), ELUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy), the energy gap(ΔE), hardness(η), Softness(S), dipole moment(μ), electron affinity(EA), ionization potential(IE), the absolute electronegativity (χ) , the fraction of electron transferred (ΔN), electrophilicity index(ω) and the back-donation (ΔE Back-donation) have been calculated. The local reactivity has been studied through the Fukui and condensed softness indices in order to predict both the reactive centres and to know the possible sites of nucleophilic and electrophilic attacks. The obtained correlations and theoretical conclusions agree well with the experimental data.
Direct Spectrophotometric Determination of Nickel (II) With p-Methoxyphenylazo-bis-acetoxime
A new reagent p-methoxyphenylazo-bis-acetoxime has been used for spectrophotometric determination of Ni (II). Nickel forms a 1:2 (Ni: R) ethanol soluble light yellow complex with the reagent. The working wavelength was taken at 370 nm (-3800) in the pH range 7.1-8.1. Beer’s law obeyed between 0.117 - 0.939 ppm and Sandell’s sensitivity is 15.44 ng/cm2.The values of log found from the two different methods were 8.65 and 8.67, respectively. Interference of 24 diverse ions has been examined.
Solvent Extraction and Spectrophotometeric Determination of U (VI) By Using Acetophenone 2’, 5’-Dihydroxy, Semicarbazone as an Analytical Reagent
A spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of U(VI) using Acetophenone 2’,5’dihydroxy, semicarbazone1 as an extractive reagent .The reagent form a colored complex which has been quantitatively extracted into n-Butanol at pH 6.0. The method obeys Beer’s law over a range of 1 to 10 ppm. The molar absorptivity is 6785.7 L mol-1cm-1 and Sandell’s sensitivity is 0.03508 μg cm-2 respectively. The propose method is very sensitive and selective. This method has been successfully applied to synthetic and commercial samples.
Preparation and Standardization of A Polyherbal Formulation
Standardization of herbal formulation is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs. The present paper reports preparation and standardization of a polyherbal formulation which contains Syzgium cumini(bark), Mangifera indica(bark), Ficus bengalensis (bark), Ficus religiosa(bark), Lawsonia inermis (leaves), Juglans nigra (bark), Terminalia bellirica (fruits) and Hibiscusrosa sinensis (bark). This Ayurvedic formulation is used to treat diabetes mellitus. Here we calculate and discussed about Extractive value, Moisture content, Ash value, Carr’s index etc. These parameters are required for authentication of any herbal drug and its formulation.