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Sciensage

2012-Vol 3-Issue 3

Editorial

Red Wine And Its Salutary Inherent Succession

Drinking red wine has been portrayed by the media as a means of combating heart disease. Do these claims have any real medical basis? The main health benefit of moderate alcohol use appears to be related to its effect on the development of atherosclerosis or the accumulation of fatty plaques in the blood vessels, particularly the coronary arteries that supply the heart.

Raaz Maheshwari

Department of Chemistry, SBRMGC, Nagaur, Rajasthan, India

Review Articles

Biological Diversity of Thiophene: A Review

Thiophene has been established as the potential entity in the largely growing chemical world of heterocyclic compounds possessing promising pharmacological characteristics. A series of thiophene compounds can be synthesized through various synthetic routes, with diverse pharmacological activities. In future the moiety & its derivatives draw a special attention of medicinal chemists to produce various scaffolds with potent biological activities & also as a lead pharmacophore of any compounds & for clinical investigations. This review provides various synthetic strategies of thiophene analogues.

Ankita Chaudhary, K.K. Jha, Sachin Kumar

College of Pharmacy, Teerthankar Mahaveer University, Delhi Road, Moradabad (UP), India

Chloroquine-Resistance Malaria

Malaria is the major health problem in developing countries including India. Resistance to antimalarial drugs is proving to be a challenging problem in malaria control in most parts of the world. Chloroquine resistance has emerged independently less than ten times in the past 50 years and the most of the chloroquine resistance targets are localized in the acid food vacuole of the malaria. Resistance to P.falciparum may be due to increased capacity of the parasite to expel chloroquine to reach levels required for inhibition of the heme-polymerization. Resistance to sufadoxime-pyrimethamine, quinine and mefloquine is much higher than the chloroquine. Increased chloroquine treatment failure has led to change the drug policy to artesunate combined therapy (ACT) as first line of malaria treatment. The artesunate-based combination currently used in the established multidrug-resistant areas on different parts of world. With emerging resistance there is a urgent need of a fully synthetic drug such as arterolane, which has an activity profile that is similar to that of the artemisinins, provides an important potential in such an endeavor.

B. Akshaya Srikanth, Nesrin Mohamed Abd alsabor Ali, S.Chandra Babu

P.R.R.M.College of Pharmacy, Kadapa, A.P, India

Research Articles

Development of Directly Compressible Ascorbic Acid Tablet Using Novel Excipients

Ascorbic acid is a high dose drug, degrading in presence of moisture because of an oxidative process leading to biologically inactive substances. Physical properties of ascorbic acid indicate that it is unsuitable for direct compression at concentrations above 60% in a tabletting mixture. Pharmaceutical excipients contribute unique functionalities to tablet formulations thereby largely determining their quality, compressibility and ease of processing. The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare performance of directly compressible excipient blends for their suitability in ascorbic acid tablet manufacture and to investigate effect of compression pressure on tablet characteristics and assess lubricant sensitivity of compressible excipients and modified hydrogenated fat bleds. These excipients blends were evaluated for particle size, shape, flow properties, % compressibility, Hausner's ratio and elastic recovery.

Seema Jagtap, Dr. Bajaj Amrita, Maskare Rina, Darshana Jain

C.U. Shah College of Pharmacy, SNDT women’s University, Juhu Tara Road, Santacruz (west), Mumbai, India

Production and Purification of Chitinase by Streptomyces sp. from Soil

Microbial production of chitinase has captured the worldwide attention of both industrial and scientific environments, not only because of its wide spectrum of applications but also for the lacuna of an effective production method. Chitinase production by a terrestrial Streptomyces species was studied under sub-merged fermentation. Chitinase production started after 24 h of incubation and reached maximum levels during the sixth day of cultivation. A high level of chitinase activity was observed in the culture medium with pH 7 at 30˚C. Culture medium amended with 0.4% colloidal chitin was found to be suitable source and the influence of additional carbon on chitinase production was also studied and the results revealed that the sucrose served as a good carbon source to enhance chitinase yield. Chitinase was purified from crude enzyme extract by two steps (ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis) and the molecular weight was determined by SDS-PAGE which exhibits a distinct protein band near to 34 kDa. The present study provides a suitable medium for improved chitinase production by Streptomyces species. Moreover, the study reflects the potential of Streptomyces species to produce chitinase for biotechnological applications.

Balakrishnan Sowmya, Duraisamy Gomathi, Manokaran Kalaiselvi, Ganesan Ravikumar, Chinthamani Arulraj and Chandrasekar Uma

Department of Biochemistry, Karpagam University, Coimbatore, India

Evaluation of Antimicrobial principles of Rhizophora species along Mumbai Coast

Mangrove plants are rich source of secondary metabolites like steroids, triterpens, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins. Extracts from different mangrove plants are reported to possess diverse medicinal properties. In view of this Rhizophora apiculata and Rhizophora mucronata were selected to study the antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. For this purpose gram negative, gram positive bacteria and fungi were used to test antibacterial and antifungal activity of these plant extracts. The tested extracts showed to varying degrees of antimicrobial potential against the test microorganisms.These promising finding suggest antibacterial and antifungal activity of plant material indicating presence of bioactive compounds against pathogens.

Pimpliskar Mukesh R., R.N.Jadhav, B.L.Jadhav

Dept. of Biotechnology, E.S.A.College of science, Vasai Road, (M.S.), India

Variation in Physico-chemical quality parameters of Manjara Dam Water Dist Beed (M S) India

The Manjara Dam constructed accros river Manjara in Beed dirtrict of Maharashtra. The physico-chemical parameters were investigated for one year. The study reveals that the Manjara Dam water is useful for daily usage of peoples but needs some primary treatment before used as drinking water.

Sayyed Hussain, Vinod Mane, Takale Surendra, Mazahar Farooqui

Sir Sayyed College, Aurangabad (MS), India

Development and Validation of a Rapid Spectrofluorimetric Method for Quantification of Coal Tar in Topical Formulations

The present research work discusses the development of a spectrofluorimetric method for the estimation of coal tar. The method is simple, accurate and cost efficient and can be routinely employed for the quality control and quantification of coal tar in topical products. The optimum conditions for the analysis of coal tar were established. The relative fluorescence intensity of coal tar was determined in cyclohexane at an excitation wavelength of 384 nm and an emission wavelength of 430 nm. The method validation was accomplished through evaluation of analytical parameters of linearity, range, accuracy, and precision, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) as per ICH guidelines. The linearity range was found to be 1 to 100 μg/mL. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.007 μg/mL and 0.022 μg/mL, respectively. The developed method was successfully employed to quantify the coal tar in a commercial topical product and the findings were accurate.

Kaisar Raza, Sushant Thakur, Parteek Singal, Sheetu Wadhwa, Om Prakash Katare

Drug Delivery Research Group, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UGC-Centre for Advanced Study, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India

Antipyretic Activity of Zizyphus jujuba lam. Leaves

The anti pyretic activity of Zizyphus jujuba Lam. was evaluated to Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in rats with respect to control group. The anti pyretic activity of the extract was comparable to the standard prototype, paracetamol.

Anbarasi Balakrishnan*, Parimala Devi Balasubramaniyam, Senthil Kumar Natesan

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, JKK Muniraja Medical Research Foundation, College of Pharmacy, Komarapalayam, Namakkal, Tamilnadu, India

Comparison of the Antiepileptic Activity of Commiphora Molmol Leaves by Different Methods

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiepileptic activity of the leaves of Commiphora molmol in animal models. Acute toxicity studies were performed in rats after administration of the extract orally in graded doses. Antiepileptic activity was evaluated by using Maximum electroshock-induced convulsion and Pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion at 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg dose. The phytochemical study of plant revealed the presence of carbohydrate, flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids and suggests that plant had antiepileptic property. The 500mg/kg dose showed more antiepileptic property than 250 mg/ kg of C. molmol. The present study concludes that leaf extract of Commiphora molmol showed more antiepileptic activity by Pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion method in compared to Maximum electroshock-induced convulsion method.

Priya Pathak, Neha Kesarwani, Ritesh Kumar Srivastav

Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Dasauli, P.O.Basha Kursi Road, Lucknow (U.P.), India

Assessment of Knowledge and Awareness of Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Population Towards Diabetes Mellitus in Kaduna, Nigeria

This study was aimed to assess the knowledge and awareness among diabetic and non diabetic Nigerian population in Kaduna state towards diabetes mellitus (DM) different knowledge domain and, to evaluate diabetic patients’ awareness towards anti-diabetic therapy, hypoglycemia management and their practical approach towards DM control. This was a cross-sectional study based on validated, self administered questionnaire. Three hundred forty (340) subjects included 33.7% diabetic subjects and 66.2% non diabetic participants attending NNPC-industrial clinic and Barau Dikko specialist hospital Kaduna, Nigeria. 78.96% of total participants have good knowledge towards DM etiology, disease monitoring (70.6%), management (57.1%), and physical control (52.7%). Average knowledge was recorded towards DM clinical manifestation (47.5%) and complication (42.4%). Low knowledge response (38.3%) towards risk problems associated with high blood pressure. 35% of diabetic participants missed some doses of their anti-diabetic drug. 34.2% of diabetic participants are not aware about hypoglycemic symptoms and 53.8% not aware about management of these symptoms. 

Nehad M. Hamoudi*, Istabraq Dhia Al Ayoubi, Jyothi Vanama1, Husain Yahaya, Umar Farouq Usman

College of Pharmacy, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, UAE

A Pioneering Approach to Enhance Dissolution and Bioavailability of Multiple Drugs in a Single Dosage Form: Speedy Disintegrating Tablet of Cefpodoxime Proxetil and Potassium Clavulanate

The demand of fast dissolving tablets has been growing during the last decade especially for geriatric and pediatric patients because of difficulties in administration. So this research was to formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets with combination of two drugs namely Cefpodoxime Proxetil and Potassium Clavulanate. These tablets were prepared by using mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose etc. as filler, crospovidone, croscarmillose, SSG as super disintegrants and also used sweetener like sucralose , flavor as peppermint or orange or in combination of both, one glidant i.e. aerosil and one or combination of lubricants and antiadherents in different concentration. Total ten formations and one control batch were prepared and evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, content uniformity, wetting time, water absorption ratio, disintegration time and in-vitro drug release (all tests were performed as mentioned in The Pharmacopoeia IP,BP or USP). Optimized formulation that was DP-07 compared with control formulation for disintegration time and % drug release. The stability studies were performed as per ICH guidelines. The Optimized formulation DP-07 shown no significant variations for the tablets parameters and it was stable for the specified time period. It was concluded the FDT for Cefpodoxime Proxetil and Potassium Clavulanate can be formulated for emergency treatment of bacterial infection.

P.Khemariya, C. Rawal, A. Mavila, Rai P

Aligharh Collage of Pharmacy, Aligharh, U.P., India

Prevalence of White Spot Syndrome Virus in Brood stock, Nauplii and Post-larvae of Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798) in Bangladesh

Bangladesh enters into international shrimp market in early 1970s but now it takes second places in the source of foreign currency earning. Now this sector facing a serious problem with a disease named White Spot Syndrome Virus which causes 100% mortality in the shrimp farm within two weeks. In Bangladesh, outbreak of White Spot Syndrome Virus has been a serious problem since 1995. In the present study, it was observed the present situation of White Spot Syndrome Virus prevalence in wild tiger shrimp brood, nauplii and post-larvae in Bangladesh. The result shows that prevalence of White Spot Syndrome Virus in wild tiger shrimp brood was in decreasing trend, but post-larvae during the study period. White Spot Syndrome Virus prevalence in tiger shrimp brood, nauplii and post larvae was found highest in the month of March and April and after that it was decreasing up to July and again increases in the month of August.

Partho Pratim Debnath, Ehsanul Karim, Mohammed Ashraful Haque, Md. Shahab Uddin, Manjurul Karim

The World Fish Center, Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh

Masking Bitter Taste of Ciprofloxacin by Microbeads Using Hydrophilic Polymer

Taste is a valuable parameter in administering drugs orally. The problems encountered in formulation with many drugs like ciprofloxacin are the undesirable or bitter taste. The physiology and sensitivity of the taste mainly depend up on taste bud of tongue. While, formulating the oral dosage, taste is considered as an important parameter. The challenging problem for health care providers was undesirable taste. Different techniques are used in masking the taste, but in modern days the most improved and easy technique is to formulate tasteless micro beads of ciprofloxacin with varied concentrations of methyl cellulose polymer by using Ionic Orifice Gelation technique. Various techniques used not only serve as to mask the taste of drug but also to enhance the bioavailability of dosage form. The evaluation of masked ciprofloxacin microbeads was done and the results were found to be satisfactory.

P.R.Radhika, Manasvi Sunkara, T.Sivakumar

Department of Pharmaceutics, Nandha College of Pharmacy and Research Institute, Erode-52, Tamil Nadu, India

Density Functional Theory Investigations for the adsorption of some Oxadiazole Derivatives on Mild Steel

Two oxadiazole derivatives namely 2,5-bis(4-methylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (Inh-1) and 2,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (Inh-II) were investigated as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel using density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level. Quantum chemical parameters most relevant to their potential action as corrosion inhibitors such as EHOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital energy), ELUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy), the energy gap(ΔE), hardness (η), Softness(S), dipole moment(μ), electron affinity(A), ionization potential(I), the absolute electronegativity (χ), the fraction of electron transferred (ΔN), electrophilicity index(ω) and the back-donation(ΔE Back-donation) have been calculated and discussed. The local reactivity has been analysed through the Fukui and condensed softness indices inorder to predict both the reactive centres and to know the possible sites of nucleophilic and electrophilic attacks. The theoretical conclusions were found to be consistent with the experimental data reported.

P. Udhayakala, T.V. Rajendiran, S. Gunasekaran

Department of Chemistry, Dr.MGR Educational and Research Institute, Chennai, India

Efficacy of Electromyographic Biofeedback Strength Training on Quadriceps Femoris Muscles In Pattelofemoral Pain Syndrome

The aims of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of Electromyographic-biofeedback as an add-on therapy with isometric contraction exercise on quadriceps strength and pain in patient with pattelofemoral pain syndrome. Thirty patients (9 men and 21 women) with pattelofemoral pain syndrome. Patients were randomly placed into two groups: biofeedback group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). The biofeedback group received electromyographic-biofeedback guided isometric contraction exercise program for 5 days a week for 3 week, whereas the control group received aisometric contraction exercisesprogram only. Isometric quadriceps strength improved significantly at the end of 3 week, compared with the pretreatment values in both the groups. On between group comparisons, the isometric quadriceps strength in biofeedback group, at the end of 3 week and after 2 week follow-up i.e. on 5th week were significantly higher than those of control group (p<0.05). The addition of electromyographic-biofeedback toisometric exercise program has been shown to produce greater gains in isometric quadriceps strength, thereby reduce pain than isometric exercise alone over a 3 week period. This study may provide a rationale for the clinical use of electromyographic-biofeedback.

Shahnaz P, Shahzad N, Mirza M, Md Naushad Alam, Annu Jain

Department of Physiotherapy, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, Singhania University, Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan, India

Insecticidal activity of plant extracts against Tribolium castaneum Herbst

The insecticidal activity of n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of Tamarindus indica, Azadirachta indica, Cucumis sativus, Eucalyptus species, Switenia mahagoni, and Psidium guajava leaves were investigated by using the Film residue method against a red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum Herbst. The results showed that four plant extracts showed a strong to moderate toxicity at a different concentration on red flour beetle. Among them, Cucumus sativus leaves extract showed highest mortality (80%) whereas Psidium guajava extract showed lowest mortality (50%). Among the solvents, the hexane extracts showed more toxic effect than other extracts. The LC50 results revealed that the hexane extract of Cucumus sativus is the most toxic to the pest followed by the hexane extracts of Azadirachta indica and Tamarindus indica. Qualitative phytochemical analysis has also been performed.

M. Mostafa, Hemayet Hossain, M Anwar Hossain, Pizush Kanti Biswas, M. Zahurul Haque

Chemical Research Division, BCSIR Laboratories, Dhaka- 1205, Bangladesh


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