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Sciensage

2012-Vol 3-Issue 4

Editorial

Beware Before Indulging Taste Buds with Junk Food

According to the NGO, many brands claim that they contain zero trans-fats even though tests showed that they have heavy doses of it. The report said that most popular "junk foods contain very high levels of trans-fats, salts and sugar - which inevitably lead to severe ill health and diseases like obesity and diabetes." The report revealed the names of 16 major food brands that included the list of big names like Maggi, MacDonald's foods, Top Ramen noodles, Haldiram's Aloo Bhujia and KFC's fried chicken. The tests were carried out on potato chips, aloo bhujia, soft drinks, noodles, burgers, fried chicken and French fries showed that just one serving of these will "completely overturned one's daily diet chart." According to the CSE report, the manufacturers of these products kept their consumers in dark over the real contents in the products.

Dr Raaz Maheshwari

Department of Chemistry, SBRMGC, Nagaur, Rajasthsan

Review Articles

Lentiviral Mediated Correction of Genetic Disorders

Recently lentiviral vectors (LVs) have emerged as potent and versatile vectors for gene transfer into cells. Use of LVs has now moved beyond the preclinical stage into the clinical arena with multiple gene therapy trials ongoing or approved for the treatment of genetic/ metabolic disorders. LVs can deliver genes ex vivo into bona fide stem cells, particularly hematopoietic stem cells, allowing for stable transgene expression upon hematopoietic reconstitution. In the last decade, gene therapy has established itself as a promising approach for the treatment of hereditary diseases of the blood-forming system, especially for patients who cannot be treated by conventional transplantation strategies. However, despite these advances, for many envisioned applications of lentivirus vectors as tools in biology and therapeutic gene delivery in the future, the efficiency of gene transfer still needs to be further studied and improved. Additionally, there are safety concerns regarding insertional mutagenesis. The focus of this review is to highlight some important investigations in which lentiviral vector technology platform was employed to provide a robust ammunition in the quest to develop improved therapeutics to treat otherwise incurable genetic diseases like glycogen storage disease type Ia, β- thalassemias and X linked severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome.

Suparna Dugal *, Aasia Choudhary

Dept.of Microbiology, Sophia College, University of Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Adiantum capillus-veneris. L: Phytochemical Constituents, Traditional Uses and Pharmacological Properties: A Review

Since ancient times, Adiantum capillus-veneris L is used as remedies in traditional therapy in Iran. It has always had an important role to play in medicine and public health. Adiantum capillus-veneris L of Adiantaceae family is one of most common plants that have found diverse medicinal uses in the indigenous systems of medicine. The systematic phytochemical studies on the whole plant material have resulted in the isolation and structure elucidation of many compounds such as triterpenoids, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, oleananes, alicyclic, and carotenoids. The leaves of plant have pharmacologically been studied for various activities like antibacterial, antiimplantation, antihyperglycemic, hypoglycemic, antiyeast, antiviral activities etc. The present report that reviews the entire investigations done on this plant will possibly help to its effective remedies in traditional therapy, and will be the window for its usage in discovery of new drugs.

R. Ansari*, K. Ekhlasi-Kazaj

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran

Stem Cell Therapy in Parkinson’s disease

Stem cells are undeveloped cells without mature, tissue-specific characteristics that are able to proliferate, to reproduce themselves and to produce generations of progenitor cells, which can differentiate into one or more specialized cell types. India is an emerging player in the stem cell arena. The research and therapeutic applications of stem cell has been growing rapidly in recent years and scientists have for years looked for ways to use stem cells to replace cells and tissues that are damaged or diseased. Stem cells have shown great promise in treatment of debilitating diseases like heart diseases, liver diseases, stroke, spinal injuries, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, retinal degeneration, muscular dystrophy, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremors, rigidity, and hypokinesia. The main pathology underlying disease symptoms in PD is a rather selective degeneration of nigrostriatal neurons leading to severe loss of dopamine (DA) in the striatum. At present, drug treatments and surgery cannot fundamentally solve the problem. With the development of cell replacement therapy, medical professionals are exploring treatment by restoration of dopamine neurotransmitters in the neural circuitry of patients with PD by getting dopaminergic neurons and cell transplantation. The clinical studies with intrastriatal transplants of fetal mesencephalic tissue in PD patients have provided proof-of-principle for the cell replacement strategy in this disorder. The grafted dopaminergic neurons can reinnervate the denervated striatum, restore regulated dopamine (DA) release and movement-related frontal cortical activation, and give rise to significant symptomatic relief.

Vivek Sharma*, Arcahna Kashyap, Sapna Sharma, Dheeraj Kaushik

Govt. College of Pharmacy, Rohru Distt. Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India

Research Articles

Antimycobacterial Sterols from Aromatic Stem Sap of Commiphora eminii Engl.

The phytochemical analysis on aromatic stem sap of Commiphora eminii afforded two cholesten sterols namely, 4-methyl-cholest-7-en-3-ol (1) and cholest-7-en-3-ol (2). Their chemical structures were deduced using NMR and MS spectral data and with comparison with data available in literatures. The sterols were screened for antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium madagascariense (MM) and Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP). Only sterol 2 exhibited antimycobacterial activity with MIC values of 1.6 mg/ml against both mycobacteria strains used. In the combination assay, sterols potentiated activity of isoniazid (INH) against test organisms, which are known to be resistant to isoniazid even at higher concentration. Sterol 1 had a fractional minimum inhibition concentration (FMIC) of 0.2 mg/ml while sterol 2 had FMIC values of 0.1 against both MM and MIP. The combination of two sterols alone lacked efficacy. The fact that, sterol 1 lacked efficacy in the normal antimycobacterial assay, and that during the combination assay, it potentiated activity of INH at a low concentration indicates that, sterols may be considered as activity enhancers for antibiotics such as isoniazid, especially when testing against drug resistant Mycobacterium strains.

Paul Erasto

Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

The Isolation of Important Biosynthetic Intermediate; Presqualene Alcohol and Its Acetate Derivative from Antidesma Venosum

Phytochemical investigations of the root bark of Antidesma venosum (Euphorbiaceae) afforded presqualene alcohol (1), presqualene acetate (2) together with friedelin; epifriedelanol, betulinic acid, toddaculin, α-tocopherol and pheophytin A. This is the first report of compound 2 to be isolated from the natural source. Furthermore, presqualene acetate (2) can be obtained in large amounts from this source, making it a good source of material for biosynthetic studies.

Joseph J. Magadula*, Dulcie A. Mulholland, Neil R. Crouch

Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Formulation and Evaluation of Glimepiride Solid Dispersion Tablets for Their Solubility Enhancement

Glimepiride (GMP) is poorly water soluble drug, so solubility is the main constraint for its oral bioavailability. The objective of the research project is to enhance of the solubility of Glimepiride by using solid dispersion technique. The polymers used were Poloxamer 188 and Poloxamer 407 and solid dispersions were prepared by kneading method. The solubility study was carried out to study the effect of polymers on solubility of Glimepiride. The prepared solid dispersions were characterized by In-vitro solubility Study, %Drug content; Fourier transforms spectroscopy (FTIR), In vitro drug dissolution to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug and excipients. The dissolution studies of solid dispersion were performed by using USP II apparatus. The solid dispersion prepared with Poloxamer 188 showed better drug release as compared to solid dispersion prepared with Poloxamer 407. The drug release profile of F5 batch with Poloxamer 188 was 98.20±0.19 in 60 min. and drug release profile of F11 batch with Poloxamer 407 was 97.39±0.18 in 60 min. in pH 7.4. The results of dissolution studies and stability study the kneading method prepared solid dispersion by using Poloxamer 188 (Batch F5) was selected for tablet formulation. Tablet formulations were prepared by direct compression technique and developed tablet formulations were evaluated for various pharmaceutical characteristics viz. hardness, % friability, weight variation, drug content, in-vitro dissolution profiles. Thus Results showed that the solid dispersion technique by using poloxamer successfully used for enhancing the solubility of Glimepiride.

Wagh V. T.*, Jagtap V.A., Shaikh T.J., Nandedkar S. Y.

DCS’s A.R.A. College of Pharmacy, Nagaon, Dhule, MH. India

Physio-Chemical Analysis of Sewage Water of Yamuna Nagar District of Haryana Before and After Treatment Using USAB

The present study deals with the water pollution caused by sewage disposal and other effluents in Yamuna Nagar district of Haryana. This water is drained in Western Yamuna Canal which has its origin from pious Yamuna River and its subsidiaries which is harmful to aquatic life and is polluting the underground water of the region mainly in rainy season. The study of some physiochemical properties reveals that treatment of this polluted water is essential otherwise it will be a threat for underground water and aquatic life as well.

Ravish Kumar Chauhan*, Rakesh Kumar Bhardwaj

Department of Chemistry I.G.N. College, Ladwa, India

Production of Alginate by Azotobacter vinelandii in semi-industrial scale using batch and fed-batch cultivation systems

The alginate production by Azotobacter vinelandii in batch and fed-batch culture was studied in semi-industrial scale level using 16-L and 150-L stirred tank bioreactor (STR). During batch cultivation in 16-L STR, the maximal volumetric alginate production of 0.98 g/L was obtained in uncontrolled pH culture, whereas, the maximal specific alginate production of 0.15 g alginate/g cells was obtained in controlled pH culture. As glucose was found to be the limiting substrate in this process, fed-batch cultivation was developed using C-source constant feeding strategy in combination with other key medium components to improve volumetric alginate production. The maximal volumetric and specific alginate productions were 7 g/L and 0.45 g/g, respectively, in fed-batch culture. Based on these data, the production process was scaled up using constant power input (P/V) criteria to 150-L stirred tank bioreactor. Bioprocess scaling up using this strategy improved further the volumetric alginate production up to 20 g/L concomitant with increased specific alginate production reaching 0.65 g/g after 48 h cultivation.

Charles Then, Zalina Othman, Wan Azha Wan Mustapha, Mohamed Roji Sarmidi, Ramlan Aziz, Hesham A. El Enshasy*

Institue of Bioproduct Development (IBD), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

Antibacterial Effect of Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles Against Vibrio sp. Isolated from Broiler Chicken

In the present study, Ocimum sanctum plant leaf extract was used for extracellular synthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles (AgNps) to investigate antibacterial activity against Vibrio sp. isolated from broiler chicken. Stable AgNps were formed after adding aqueous solution of 0.75 mM AgNO3 with the O. sanctum plant leaf extract. Quantitative analysis of green synthesized AgNps was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy. The size and shape was characterised by atomic force microscopy (AFM). In UV-visible spectroscopy, the peak length was reduced within three hours and the average size of the nanoparticles ranged from 10 to 15 nm was observed in the AFM. Bacteriological test were performed in luria-bertani (LB) medium on solid agar plates supplemented with different concentration of 100 to 400 μl green synthesized AgNps. Among the various concentration, 300 μl and 400 μl of nanoparticles showed higher inhibitory activity against the Vibrio sp. The present study clearly indicated that the green synthesized AgNps has potent antibacterial activity against Vibrio sp. O. sanctum based AgNps may be suitable for the formulation of new types of bactericidal activity and which can be effectively used in poultry farms for treating the Vibrio disease.

Latha Malaikannan, Prabhu Narayanan Marimuthu *, Manikandan Ramar, Vaseeharan Baskaralingam

Department of Animal Health and Management, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, Tamil nadu, India.

Production Performance of White Fish in Two Different Culture Systems in Patuakhali, Bangladesh

The present study was carried out to compare the production performance of white fish from traditional and modified traditional culture system of three upazila in Patuakhali district. For the research work, 10 traditional and 10 improve traditional farmer was selected from each Upazila. From the study average pond size of traditional farmers of Patuakhali sadar, Galachipa and Mirzaganj was found 4.56 ±0.29 decimal, 5.58 ±2.49 decimal and 4.6 ±1.32 decimal respectively and improve traditional farmers was 5.64 ±2.18, 5.65 ±2.18 and 5.24 ±2.73 decimal respectively. Average stocking density of traditional farmers was 207 ±57, 219 ±38 and 227 ±56 fingerlings/ decimal and that of improve traditional farmers was fixed which were 55 fingerlings/ decimal in Patuakhali sadar, Galachipa and Mirzaganj respectively. Average survival rate of traditional farming system was found as 62±6.21%, 65±5.25% and 61±11.25% respectively in Patuakhali sadar, Galachipa and Mirzaganj and that of improve traditional farming system was found as 76±5.16%, 80±4.97% and 77±5.87% respectively. In Patuakhali sadar upazila, average production of traditional farmer was found 4.71±0.7652 kg/decimal and that of improve traditional farmer was 10.67±0.8830 kg/decimal. In Galachipa upazila, average production of traditional farmer was found 4.47±0.7365 kg/decimal and that of improve traditional farmer was 10.66±0.3342 kg/decimal. In Mirzaganj upazila, average production of traditional farmer was found 4.47±0.4127 kg/decimal and that of improve traditional farmer was 10.43±0.4785 kg/decimal. The benefit cost ratio of traditional farmer: improve traditional farmer = 1:4.24. From the result it can be assumed that utilization of improve technology can increase the fish production two and half time more than that of current production. This will also help us to get back our country tradition “Mase Bhate Bangali”.

Partho Pratim Debnath*, Manjurul Karim, Quazi A.Z.M. Kudrat-E-Kabir, Mohammed Ashraful Haque, Md. Shahzad Kuli Khan

The WorldFish Center, Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh

Studies of binary complexes of bivalent metal ions with Nicotinic acid by Potentiometry

The binary complexes of metal ions Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ with Nicotinic acid as a ligand are studied in aqueous media using Irving Rosotti method. Acidity constant and stability constant are studied at 27˚C at ionic strength 1N NaNO3.Stability constants calculated by half integral method and point wise method are compared and found to follow Irving and Williams rule.

Sayyed Hussain, Abdul rahim, Mazahar Farooqui

P.G.Dept.of Chemistry, Sir Syed College, Aurangabad, India

The Effect of 20 mg Hyoscine Butylbromide on Normal Labor in Iraqi Primi- and Multi-gravida Women

The objective of the current study was to determine whether hyoscinebutylbromide (HBB) shortens first stage of labor in both primi- and multigravida women. A prospective, double blinded, controlled clinical trial carried out in Al-Elwiya Maternity Teaching Hospital, from January to December 2009; 200 primi- and multigravidae were allocated into two groups, the HBB, received 20mg HBB and control group, received 1.0ml of normal saline intravenously once they enter the active phase of labor. Duration of the active phase of the first stage was monitored in addition to comparison with second and third stages, rate of caesarean section, Apgar score and neonatal admission to neonatal intensive care unit. HBB shortens the first stage of labor only in primigravidae, with no differences in duration of second and third stages, rate of caesarean section. There was a significant difference in Apgar score at 1.0 min between HBB and control groups in primigravidae, with no increase in the rate of neonatal admission to the neonatal intensive care unit and adverse effects. HBB significantly decreases duration of the first stage of labor only in multigravida women, and not associated with any obvious adverse outcomes on mothers and neonates.

Weqar Akram Hussein Al-Khishali, Faris Anwer Rasheed, Saad Abdulrahman Hussain*

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University,Baghdad, Iraq

Phyto-Chemical and Anti-Bacterial Screening of Musabbar Prepared from Aloe Vera

A quality musabbar has been prepared from the processed leaves juice of Aloe vera by a technology developed in BCSIR Laboratories, Rajshahi. The product, musabbar was successively extracted with different solvents on the basis of increasing polarity e.g. n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water at room temperature. The extracts were studied for their bioactivity against 12 pathogenic bacteria and found most of them highly active. The MIC values of the extracts were also determined. The bioassay indicates cytotoxicity as well as a wide range of pharmacological activities of musabbar.

M. Zahurul Haque*, M. A. Jalil, M. Badrul Islam

BCSIR Dhaka- 1205, 2BCSIR Laboratories, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

Bayesian Method of Moments for Modelling Repeated Sedation Measurements

Generalized Methods of Moments approach is very popular among econometricians but is hardly used at all outside of economics, where the slightly more general term estimating equations is preferred. In this study, we prefer using GMM and Bayesian GMM approaches in a medical application. Our aim is to show that the use of generalized methods of moments with an without a Bayesian approach can be a valuable tool in medical applications when response values are clearly correlated and independent variables include categorical data as well as continuous variables.

Talat Şenel*, Erol Terzi, Mehmet Ali Cengiz

Department of Statistics, Ondokuz Mayıs University, 55139 Samsun, Turkey

Theoretical assessment of Inhibitive behaviour of some Benzohydrazide Derivatives on Mild Steel

In the present work, a theoretical study of two benzohydrazide derivatives N’-benzylidene benzohydrazide(BBH) and N’-(3-phenylallylidene) benzohydrazide(PABH), has been performed using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,P) basis set level in order to elucidate the different inhibition efficiencies and reactive sites of these compounds as corrosion inhibitors. The quantum chemical properties/descriptors most relevant to their potential action as corrosion inhibitors have been calculated. They include EHOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital energy), ELUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy), energy gap (ΔE), dipole moment (μ), hardness (η), softness (S), the absolute electronegativity (χ), the fraction of electrons transferred (ΔN) and the electrophilicity index (ω) . The local reactivity has been analyzed through the condensed Fukui function and condensed softness indices in order to compare the possible sites for nucleophilic and electrophilic attacks. The theoretical results were found to be consistent with the experimental data reported.

P.Udhayakala*, T.V. Rajendiran, S. Gunasekaran

Department of Chemistry, Dr.MGR Educational and Research Institute, Chennai , India

Experimental Studies on Electrochemical and Photo Oxidation of Effluent Containing Ethyl Benzene and Optimization Using RSM

In order to degrade the synthetic effluent containing ethyl benzene, comparative studies were carried out on electrochemical and photo oxidation processes. The galvanostatic mode of electrochemical oxidation was carried out with lead oxide as anode and stainless steel plate as cathode in the presence of 2 g/L of NaCl as a supporting electrolyte. The technique of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the process which results in 73.42% COD removal. The optimum conditions were satisfied at current density 1.82 A/dm2, time 2 hrs, flow rate 10 L/hr, and volume 3.63 L occurring with a minimum power consumption of 15 Kw.hr/kg COD. It was followed by the photo oxidation process carried out in the presence of Ultra Violet radiation emitted from Ultra Violet source. From this study, the percentage of COD reduction and Biodegradability Index was found to be a maximum of 98.42 % and 0.712 respectively. The optimized irradiation time was 45 minutes for pretreated effluent. This combined method appears to be a promising technology and has budding application for ecological remediation.

D.Prabhakaran*, T.Kannadasan, C.Chellamboli, P.Sivakumar

Dept of chemical engineering, CIT Coimbatore, India

Short Communications

Study of Physico-Chemical Parameters of Ground Water around Badnapur, Dist Jalna

Physico-chemical parameters of groundwater around Badnapur, Dist. Jalna were studied in November 2008. The parameters selected for the study are temperature, pH, total hardness, total dissolved solids, chlorides, sulphate, calcium, magnesium, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, etc.

B R Agarwal, VijayMundhe, Sayyed Hussain, Vidyapradhan, Sayyed Yusuf

J E S college, Jalna (MS) India.


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