Tyrosine Kinases: Novel Targets For Cancer Therapy
Tyrosine kinases are the enzymes those play a major role in tumor invasion and metastasis. Preclinical and clinical data strongly support the involvement of specific tyrosine kinases in the formation and progression of solid and liquid tumors. Various inhibitors were designed and synthesized for the regulation of tyrosine kinase activity. The present review focuses on to explore distinct characteristics of tyrosine kinases and their involvement in the progression of cancer.
Chemo-Pharmacological Aspects of Alfalfa: A Review
Alfalfa is a common sight in many temperate grasslands of the world. Alfalfa belongs to pea family (Fabaceae). The herbal remedies made utilizing the alfalfa have been generally prescribed by herbalist for the treatment of a variety of ailments and disorders. The alfalfa can be taken in the form of an herbal tea and it is also used in the form of herbal tablets or capsules, at times the dried plant itself is consumed by patients.
Mechanistic Synthesis of 1-Pyridylimidazo [1, 5-a] Pyridines by Using K4 [Fe (CN)6] .3H2O
Potassium Ferro-Cyanide complex catalyzed three component improved procedure for the synthesis of various 1-pyridylimidazo [1, 5-a] pyridines from 1, 2-dipyridyl ketone, aromatic aldehydes and ammonium acetate at room temperature in excellent isolated yield has been reported. This is a simple and straight forward, high yielding, does not involve any hazardous or expensive catalyst. The synthesis is purely solvent free (Mechanostic).
Microporous Biodegradable Polymeric Sponge for Surgical Haemostasis and Wound Healing
Conventional Hemostats used to control bleeding during surgeries are not biodegradable and cause hemorrhage while removal. To address this challenge, we have developed absorbable surgical hemostat which will be biodegradable, haemostatic and will also help in wound healing. Methods: Biodegradable sponges were prepared by freeze drying 5% porcine gelatin solution, using formaldehyde as crosslinking agent. Internal structure of developed sponges was characterized in-vitro by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and was further tested for its water absorption capacity as well as biodegradation. Preclinical evaluation was performed for skin irritation, haemostasis, wound healing and biodegradation in-vivo. Results: Optimized freeze drying process resulted in microporous, absorbable gelatin sponges which were biodegradable in-vitro in pepsin solution. The SEM images revealed that crosslinked Gelatin sponges were uniform and microporous. Excision and Incision wound model of rats showed enhanced haemostasis as well as wound healing without causing hemorrhage and exhibited complete biodegradation within 3-4 weeks on implantation without showing any irritation or toxicity. Conclusion: Porcine gelatin could be formulated as microporous, absorbable gelatin sponge which will act as biodegradable surgical hemostat and it can also be helpful in wound healing.
Optimization of Media Component in Inulinase Production Using Garlic by Penicillium Rugulosum
Penicillium rugulosum was found to secrete extracellular inulinase in to the medium. The optimization of inulinase production using garlic as carbon source was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of eighteen nutrients for their influence on inulinase production was achieved using a Plackett–Burman design. Corn steep liquor, FeSO4.7H2O, and Urea were selected based on their positive influence on inulinase production. The selected components were optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions are: Corn steep liquor – 0.05813 (g/gds), FeSO4.7H2O – 0.00011 (g/gds), and Urea – 0.0211 (g/gds). These conditions were validated experimentally which revealed an enhanced inulinase yield of 268 U/gds.
Development of Validated Spectrophotometric Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Acetylsalicylic Acid and Caffeine in Pure and Tablet Dosage Form
A sensitive, rapid, and specific spectrophotometric assay method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of acetylsalicylic acid and caffeine in commercial tablets. Acetyl salicylic acid and caffeine showed absorbance maxima at 297 nm and 272 nm respectively in 0.1N NaOH solution. These drugs were estimated in formulations by simultaneous equation method (method A) and absorbance ratio method (method B). In method A, acetylsalicylic acid and caffeine at their respective λmax of 297.0 nm and 272.0 nm showed linearity in the concentration range of 0-40 μg/mL and 0-25 μg/mL. Method B involved measurement of absorbance at isoabsorptive point of these two drugs i.e. at 289 nm with linearity in the concentration range of 0-40 μg/mL and 0-25 μg/mL for acetylsalicylic acid and caffeine respectively. Validation study revealed that the methods are specific, accurate, precise, and reproducible. The developed methods are simple, rapid, accurate, precise, reproducible, and economic and can be used for routine quantitative analysis of acetyl salicylic acid and caffeine in pure and tablet dosage form.
Pharmacognostic & Phytochemical Evaluation of Bryophyllum Pinnatum Leaves
In the present study leaves of Bryophyllum Pinnatum (life plant) were subjected to pharmacognostical studies such as determination of epidermal cell, parenchyma cell, cambium, xylem, phloem, stomata. Quantitative microscopy including stomatal number, stomatal index, vein islet and vein terminations were determined by using fresh leaves of the plant and results were observed.
Physicochemical studies such as ash values, extractive values of plant part were carried out to confirm the identity of plant and to ascertain the quality and purity of the drug. Ash values such as total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and sulphated ash of the plant were determined and recorded. Extractive values such as alcohol soluble extractives and water soluble extractive values were determined. These parameters may be useful for the identification and authentification of the plant for the future investigators