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2011-Vol 2-Issue 3


How Not To Stop the Flow

Water is the elixir of life and primary necessity of the human body. Water is alike the elixir of life because of which the body is purified and we become energetic. Water also possesses medicinal value. It frees the body from different ailments.”

Raaz Maheshwari

Department of Chemistry, SBDTC, Lakshman Garh, Rajasthan, India

Ecologically Engineered Strategies For The Management Of Acid Mine Drainage: An Overview

Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) is a serious environmental pollution problem of the mining industry around the world. The treatment of AMD is one of the major concerns for the mining industry. Ironically, even under the best reclamation scenario it requires long-term collection and treatment. Active treatment systems commonly used by the Indian mining industry at active mine sites require continual addition of alkaline chemicals like lime, hydrated lime, caustic soda, soda ash, etc. these chemicals besides being very expensive, also, lead to production of voluminous low-density sludge. The disposal of this sludge is again an environmental problem to be dealt with. These active treatment processes are often expensive both in terms of capital and operating costs. For the last three decades researchers, throughout the world, have been expressing their opinion that a better solution to long-term treatment of AMD lies in the use of other technology with the application of integrated biological processes in engineered ecologies, which are passive technologies. One of the highly effective passive technologies for ecological engineering approach is construction of wetland to effectively treat AMD. The problem of AMD exists at number of sites in India. The main aim of the present manuscript is to devise a new treatment technology for AMD in India. The need for this technology is because the current approaches are too expensive and impractical at the sources of AMD at abandoned mines contaminated water continues to be discharged day after day without any treatment.

Bina Rani, Upma Singh, Raaz Maheshwari

Department of Engineering Chemistry & Environmental Engineering, PCE, Sitapura, Jaipur, India

Review Articles

Pyrimidine As Anticancer Agent: A Review

The chemistry of pyrimidines is a blossoming field for the study of their pharmacological uses. Numerous methods for the synthesis of pyrimidine as also their diverse reactions offer enormous scope in the field of medicinal chemistry. The utility of pyrimidines as synthon for various biologically active compounds has given impetus to these studies. The review article aims to review the work reported the recent work on the anticancer synthetic pyrimidine compound and the chemistry and biological activities of pyrimidines during past year.

Rupseh Dudhe *, Pramod Kumar Sharma, Prabhakar Verma, Anshu Chaudhary

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Meerut Institute of Engineering & Technology, NH-58, Baghpat Bypass Crossing, Meerut (U. P.), India

Review on Synthesis and Various Biological Potential of Thiazolopyrimidine Derivatives

A number of efforts were made to synthesize a large number of heterocyclic compounds and their derivatives and screened their pharmacological activities for treating various diseases. Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen and sulfur in their skeleton are the most fascinated compound by scientists due to their diverse biological activities. Among the various heterocyclic compounds, pyrimidine and fused pyrimidine plays an important role in the medicinal chemistry because it posses promising anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitubercular, antiparkinsonian, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-HIV activities. This review is focused on tthiazolopyrimidine and its derivatives that are now in development and screened for different activities.

Shiv Jee Kashyap*, Pramod Kumar Sharma, Vipin Kumar Garg, Rupesh Dudhe, Nitin Kumar

Pharmaceutical Chemistry Research Lab., Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Meerut Institute of Engineering and Technology, NH-58, Bypass Road, Baghpat Crossing, Meerut, U.P., India

Research Articles

Application of a Cost Effective Biosorbent for Basic Dye Removal from Textile Industries

This article deals with application of sawdust (SD) as a very efficient and economical adsorbent for removal of methylene blue (MB) as a typical basic (cationic) and commonly used dye in textile industries from aqueous solutions. The operating variables studied were initial solution pH, adsorbent mass, initial dye concentration and contact time. The experiments were carried out using both batch and column systems at room temperature. In order to have a good comparison, a commercial grade of granulated activated carbon (GAC) was also used in this investigation. Adsorption of MB on the SD and GAC was examined by the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models and their respective rate constants of first-order adsorption (k1) and second-order adsorption (k2) were estimated. The experimental data fitted very well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The experimental data were also analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. Based on the correlation coefficient values obtained (R2), it was found that equilibrium data for SD fitted well with both models. In order to find out the possibility of desorption for frequent application, the chemical regeneration of the used column was also investigated.

Reza Ansari*, Zahra Mosayebzadeh, Ali Mohammad-khah

Chemistry Department, Faculty of science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran

Optimization of Culture Conditions for Biosurfactant Production from Pseudomonas aeruginosa OCD1

The air isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa OCD1 was studied for its maximal biosurfactant production in liquid Bushnell-Haas media with n-octadecane as the substrate. Several culture conditions were investigated to maximize biosurfactant production from the strain OCD1. The optimum culture conditions were found to be 1% v/v inoculum, 2% v/v n-octadecane, 30oC temperature, 125 r.p.m. and pH 6.0 with extra 30% w/v CaCl2.2H2O in growth medium. The strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa OCD1 produced 0.98 mg/mL rhamnolipid in the culture broth at the stationary growth phase. Again, the biosurfactant production was enhanced by the addition of ZnSO4 followed by MnSO4 in the culture media at the optimized conditions.

Sonali Sahoo, Sriparna Datta*, Dipa Biswas

Department of Chemical Technology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India

Anti-oxidant Activity of 2-hydroxyacetophenone Chalcone

The novel series of chalcone was synthesized by 2-hydroxyacetophenone and substituted aldehyde. The structure of the synthesized compound was elucidated by melting point, retention factor, I.R. spectroscopic technique, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. A series of various substituted chalcone were evaluated for in- vitro anti-oxidant activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method. Among the entire synthesized compound IIf showed the most potent anti-oxidant activity and the other derivatives like IId, IIe, IIg, IIk and IIm was showed mild anti-oxidant activity.

Shaifali Singh*, P.K. Sharma, Nitin Kumar, Rupesh Dudhe

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Meerut Institute of Engineering & Technology, NH-58, Baghpat Bypass Crossing, Meerut (U. P.) India

UV-Spectrophotometric Methods For The Determination Of Zolmitriptan in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

UV, first derivative, and AUC-spectrophotometric methods for the determination of zolmitriptan in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations have been developed. For the UV-spectrophotometry, standard solutions were measured at 283.0 nm. The linearity ranges were found to be 0.5–100 μg/mL in 0.1M HCl and the regression equation was A=2.02×10−2C+4.6×10−4 (r2=0.9999). For first derivative spectrophotometry, the response (dA/dλ) of standard solutions was measured at 298.0 nm. Calibration curve was constructed by plotting dA/dλ values against concentrations, 1–100 μg/mL of zolmitriptan. Regression equation of linear calibration graph was calculated as D1= -1.14×10−3C-2.00×10−5 (r2=0.9999). The AUC-spectrophotometric method was based on calculation of area under curve (AUC) for analysis of zolmitriptan in the wavelength range of 278.0–288.0 nm. Calibration curve was constructed by plotting AUC values against concentrations, 0.5–100.0 μg/mL of zolmitriptan. Regression equation of linear calibration graph was calculated as AUC=1.963×10−1C+1.34×10−3 (r2=0.9999). The methods were validated by following the analytical performance parameters suggested by the International Conference on Harmonization. All validation parameters were within the acceptable range. The developed methods were successfully applied to estimate the amount of zolmitriptan in pharmaceutical formulations.

Sasmita Kumari Acharjya*, M.E.Bhanoji Rao, B.V.V. Ravi Kumar, M.Mathrusri Annapurna

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance Roland Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Berhampur, Odisha, India

Synthesis of a New Resin - MBHPE-TKP: Its Characterization and Application

3-(3-methyl) butoxy-2-hydroxy propyl ether of TKP (MBHPE-TKP) resin has been synthesized by using natural polymer Tamarind kernel powder (TKP),a hydrophilic polysaccharide, obtained from seeds of tamarind fruit. This new resin was characterized by moisture content, nitrogen content, FTIR spectra and total ion exchange capacity of synthesized resin.(MBHPE – TKP)resin act as flocculent cum metal ion exchanger and can be used as scavenger for toxic & hazardous metal ions present in effluent of mineral and metallurgical industries.

Manisha Sharma*, Bina Rani

Department of Chemistry, Mahila PG Mahavidyalaya, Jodhpur (Rajasthan), India

HIV/AIDS Patients’ Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Sobi Specialist Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria

Nigeria currently accounts for about 10 percent of the global HIV burden, therefore tackling this devastating pandemic is very imperative. This study was conducted to assess the level of patients’ adherence to antiretroviral therapy and identify the factors responsible for non adherence in a major HIV/AIDS specialist hospital, Sobi, Ilorin, Nigeria. Adherence among 213 HIV infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy was assessed using self-reporting and pill counting methods for 20 months of therapy. Structured questionnaire, personal interview and patients’ hospital records were used to evaluate access to medicines and patients’ factors responsible for treatment adherence. Though, the level of patients’ adherence to antiretroviral drugs was low (73.3%) compared with the standard (95%), there was significant improvement compared with the earlier reported in the sub-Saharan African countries including Nigeria. Low level of education of patients, adverse antiretroviral drug effects and stigmatization were the main factors given for non adherence. Thus, Nigeria government and non-governmental organizations should intensify efforts by improving the standard of education of the citizenry, increasing the level of awareness and encouragement on HIV/AIDS status as well as continuing funding to the rural communities to stem the tide of the menace.

Bello S. I.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria

Difference in Rate of Reaction of Some Thiazolidinone Derivatives with Synthesis and Spectral Characterization

A series of substituted 5-ethylidene-2-(phenylimino) thiazolidin-4-ones were prepared by using phenylthiourea (I) as a starting material. Phenylthiourea on reaction with ethylchloroacetate in presence of ethanol (95%) and fused sodium acetate gives 2-(phenylimino) thiazolidin-4-one (II), 2-(phenylimino) thiazolidin-4-one on further reaction with substituted benzaldehyde gives substituted 5-ethylidene-2-(phenylimino) thiazolidin-4-one (III-XI). Synthesized compounds were authenticated on the basis of elemental analysis, IR and 1H NMR and Mass spectral analysis.

Tejprakash Singh*, Pramod Kumar Sharma, Sambhu Charan Mondal, Nitin Kumar

Pharmaceutical Chemistry Research Lab., Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Meerut Institute of Engineering and Technology, NH-58, Bypass Road, Baghpat Crossing, Meerut, U.P., India

Using of Spectral Analysis of Heart Rate Variability for Increasing Reliability of Bicycle Ergometry Results

The aim was to study the suitability of heart rate variability (HRV) spectral parameters for evaluations of bicycle ergometry results in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. Our study included 243 male CHD patients aged 49±8 years. The coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by coronary angiography. The results of bicycle ergometry, Doppler echocardiography and HRV spectral analysis were analyzed also. The duration of each stage of bicycle ergometry was 3 min, the initial load value was 25 W. Dynamic load continued till the patient reached 75% of heart rate from his maximal age level. The maximal level of load achieved (i.e. load tolerance) was taken into consideration. We calculated sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), likelihood ratios of positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) bicycle ergometry results. All patients had similar clinical characteristics. LR+ becomes maximal under the moderate load tolerance. LR- is maximal in the CHD patients with high load tolerance. Thus, the excessiveness of false-negative results of bicycle ergometry is in CHD patients with high load tolerance. Reliability of results of bicycle ergometry increased under using assessments of low-frequency (LF) range power of HRV spectrum.Thus, using of LF range power of HRV spectrum increases a reliability of bicycle ergometry (or other load tests) results in CHD patients.

V.I. Gridnev*, A.R. Kiselev, O.M. Posnenkova

Saratov Research Institute of Cardiology, Saratov, Russia

The Antiulcer Activities of the Methanol Extract of Cassia singueana Leaves Using Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer Model in Rats

The antiulcer activities of the methanolic extract of Cassia singueana leaves were evaluated using indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. The extract was prepared by cold marceration in 80% methanol at 370C with intermittent shaking for 48 h. A yield of 12.6% w/w dry extract was obtained. The extract was safe, up to a dose of 4000 mg/kg given per os did not cause mortality in the rats. The extract at 250 and 750 mg/kg produced significant (p<0.05) protective effect in rats with a preventive index of 71% against 52% with cimetidine (100 mg/kg) and 0% with distilled water. The histopathologic lesions deviated from numerous severe focal lesions and marked disorientation of the gastric epithelium in solvent treated control to fairly protected gastric mucosa with CSE (250 and 750 mg/kg) and cimetidine (100 mg/k) treated rats. Cassia leaf extract was found to be significantly protective against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers in the experimental rats.

O. J. Ode

Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Abuja

Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Fractions of Terminalia Catappa in Ela Propagated Swiss Albino Mice

This investigation aims to evaluate the antioxidant potential of Phenolic fractions of Terminalia catappa in ELA propagated Swiss albino mice. The levels of enzymic antioxidants such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and non enzymic antioxidants such as vitamin A, vitamin E and reduced glutathione were increased on administration with phenolic fractions of Terminalia catappa in ELA induced mice. This result suggests that phenolic fractions of Terminalia catappa possess antioxidant activity.

Saroja M, Santhi R, Annapoorani S

Avinashilingam Deemed University, Coimbatore

Novel Approach for the Synthesis of 1,3-diaryl-3h-benzo[f]chromenes

A novel, simple and facile procedure for the synthesis of 1,3-diaryl-3H-benzo[f]chromene derivatives is described. The procedure takes place by the one-pot condensation of naphthols, aromatic aldehydes and acetophenone in the presence of ferric hydrogensulfate as the catalyst.

Saman Damavandi*, Reza Sandaroos

Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Sarvestan Branch, Sarvestan, Iran

Development and Validation of Stability Indicating HPTLC Method for Determination of Ofloxacin and Ketorolac Tromethamine in Combination

Ofloxacin is synthetic fluoroquinolone and broad spectrum antimicrobial agent for oral administration. Ketorolac is an non selective cyclooxygenase(COX) inhibitor and has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effects. The present study describes degradation of Ofloxacin and Ketorolac under ICH [Q1A (R2)] prescribed stress conditions (hydrolysis, oxidation, dry heat, wet heat and photolysis) and establishment of a stability-indicating HPTLC assay method. Different degradation peaks were observed for both Ofloxacin and Ketorolac when each was exposed to different stress condition. For HPTLC, aluminium plate precoated with Silica Gel 60 F254 and mobile phase consisting of n- butanol : ethanol : ammonia 6: 1: 3 v/v/v was used to achieve separation. Quantitation was done at 310 nm. The method was validated as per ICH Q2 R1 guidelines and results were in limit.The method was found to be simple, specific, precise, and stability indicating.

Sejal P.Gandhi, Mohit G.Dewani, Tejas C. Borole, Mrinalini C. Damle*

AISSMS College of Pharmacy, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Measurement Uncertainty in the Analysis of Ground Water Chloride of Beed City Using Mohr’s Method

The chloride estimation from the ground water of Beed City (Maharashtra, India) was determined using Mohr’s method. All volumetric apparatus used were calibrated using weighing method. The AgNO3 solution was standardized and uncertainty associated with preparation of solution, standardization of solution and estimation of chloride is calculated. It was observed that the contribution of uncertainty from standardization is maximum. Hence the estimation of chloride from ground water is mostly depending on the standard solution of AgNO3.

Abdul Rahim , Vidya Pradhan, Sayyed Husain, Mazahar Farooqui

Milliya College Beed, Aurangabad, India

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