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2011-Vol 2-Issue 4


Watch What We Eat: Avoid the Sugar Trap

Oh no! What am I going to eat now? This is a common reaction when we learn we have diabetes. Yet, eating right for diabetes is not difficult as we think. Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterised by decreased ability or total inability of the tissues to utilize carbohydrates (glucose). The disorder is due to the absence of insulin, its deficiency or ineffectiveness. In the moderate and severe cases of long duration it is associated with the abnormality of the body organs such as heart, kidney, brain, eyes and even nervous system.

Dr Raaz Maheshwari

Department of Chemistry, SBDTC, Lakshman Garh, Rajasthan, India

Review Articles

Diverse Therapeutic Applications of Aloe vera

Many of the health benefits associated with Aloe vera have been attributed to the polysaccharides contained in the gel of the leaves. These biological activities include effects promotion of wound healing, antifungal activity, hypoglycemic or antidiabetic effects, antiinflammatory, anticancer, immunomodulatory and gastroprotective properties. While the known biological activities of A. vera will be briefly discussed, aim of this review is to highlight recently discovered effects and applications of the leaf gel. These effects include the potential of whole leaf or inner fillet gel liquid preparations of A.vera to enhance the intestinal absorption and bioavailability of co-administered compounds as well as enhancement of skin permeation. In addition, important pharmaceutical applications such as the use of the dried A. vera gel powder as an excipient in sustained release pharmaceutical dosage forms will be outlined.

Priyanka Singh, Bina Rani, Raaz Maheshwari, A K Chauhan

School of Pharmacy, Krishna Institute of Engineering and Technology, Ghaziabad, UP, India

Nanoparticles – A Review

For the past few decades, there has been a considerable research interest in the area of drug delivery using particulate delivery systems as carriers for small and large molecules. Particulate systems like nanoparticles have been used as a physical approach to alter and improve the pharmacokinetic and pharmaco-dynamic properties of various types of drug molecules. They have been used in vivo to protect the drug entity in the systemic circulation, restrict access of the drug to the chosen sites and to deliver the drug at a controlled and sustained rate to the site of action. Various polymers have been used in the formulation of nanoparticles for drug delivery research to increase therapeutic benefit, while minimizing side effects. Here, we review various aspects of nanoparticle formulation, characterization, effect of their characteristics and their applications in delivery of drug molecules and therapeutic genes.

G.Maruthi, A.Anton Smith*, R.Manavalan

Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamilnadu, India

Analytical Applications of Plant Extract as Natural pH Indicator: A Review

In this review importance of pH indicators in analytical chemistry alongwith the use of plant material or the extracts obtained from plant is described. In the present review some theories related with mechanism of pH indicator in analytical quantifications involving volumetric analysis is described.

Pathan Mohd Arif Khan*, Mazahar Farooqui

Post graduate and research centre, Maulana Azad College, Aurangabad (MS), India

Photochemical Smog Pollution and Its Mitigation Measures

Photochemical smog is a unique type of air pollution. In the 1940s a new type of smog, known as photochemical smog, was first described in Los Angeles. Major Air Pollutants responsible for photochemical smog are carbon oxides (CO, CO2) , nitrogen oxides and nitric acid (NO, NO2, HNO3) , sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid (SO2, H2SO4), suspended particulate matter (SPM) ,ozone (O3) ,volatile organic compounds (VOCs).The reactions that lead to the formation of photochemical smog. Photochemical smog is a serious problem in many cities and continues to harmful for senior citizens, children, and people with heart and lung conditions such as emphysema, bronchitis and asthma. Vegetation is easily harmed main agents of damage are ozone and PAN. Smog can also accelerate the deterioration of rubber, plastics, paints and dyes, damage to metals, stone, concrete, clothing, rubber and plastic is directly related to contaminants in the air. Photochemical ozone concentrations can be decreased by reduction in hydrocarbon and other VOC emissions and by reduction in NOx but there is a non-linear (and sometimes inverse) dependence of ozone production on precursor emissions have developed models to predict ozone concentrations and their response to different control measures.

Bina Rani, Upma Singh, A K Chuhan, Diwakar Sharma, Raaz Maheshwari

Department of Engineering Chemistry & Environmental Engineering, PCE, Sitapura, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Research Articles

Development and Characterization of Mucoadhesive Microcapsules of Nateglinide: Ionic Orifice Gelation Technique

Type-2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder where the body is unable to automatically regulate blood glucose levels, resulting in hyperglycemia because the pancreatic β-cell does not produce enough insulin. This produces the classical symptoms of Polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger). Nateglinide is a meglitinide short-acting non-sulfonylurea, pancreatic, beta-cell-selective, KATP potassium channel blocker that improves overall glycemic control in type-2 diabetes. Nateglinide binds rapidly to the sulfonylurea SUR1 receptor with rapid association and dissociation gives nateglinide a unique "fast on-fast off" effect. Nateglinide has short biological half-life of 1.5-2.5 h and therefore a sustained release medication is required to get prolonged effect and to reduce fluctuations in drug plasma concentration levels. Microencapsulation is an accepted process used to achieve controlled release and drug targeting for many years. Mucoadhesion has been a topic of interest in the design of drug delivery systems to prolong its intestinal residence time. Mucoadhesion facilitates the intimate contact of the dosage form with the underlying absorption surface for improved bioavailability of drugs. Nateglinide microcapsules were prepared employing SA (sodium alginate) as the coat material in combination with some mucoadhesive polymers such as (sodium carboxy methylcellulose) Sod. CMC and (methyl cellulose) MC (drug:SA:polymer at ratios 2:2:1, 2:3:1 and 2:4:1) following orifice-ionic gelation technique. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies proved the compositions were compatible without any interaction between the drug and excepients. The prepared microcapsules were evaluated for various physical and release parameters. 

Santhosh Kumar Mankala*, Appanna Chowdary Korla, Sammaiah Gade

Department of Pharmaceutics, Vaageswari College of Pharmacy, Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Effect Formulation Variables on Physicochemical Characteristics and Drug Release Potential of Oral Glipizide Microspheres

In the present research work, guar gum (GG) microspheres containing glipizide were prepared by emulsification cross-linking method using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coating polymer and glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. The physical state of the drug in the formulation was determined by Fourier transformation infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorometry (DSC). The influences of process variables like concentration of polymer (s), copolymer, cross linking agent, surfactant, and plasticizer were evaluate on drug content, encapsulation efficiency, surface morphology, mean particle size, swelling ratio, mucoadhesive property and in vitro release studies. The shape and surface characteristics were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Particle size distribution was determined by standard sieve analysis. Particle size, shape and surface morphology, swelling ratio, drug entrapment efficiency and in-vitro release were significantly affected by concentration of guar gum, plasticizer and glutaraldehyde. FTIR and DSC studies revealed the absence of drug polymer interactions. The drug entrapment efficiency was obtained in the range of 81.30-94.24 %w/v. In-vitro drug release profile glipizide from microbeads was examined in simulated intestinal pH 7.4 at end of 12h. The mechanism of drug release from GG microspheres was diffusion controlled followed by First order kinetics and whereas GG-PVA coated microspheres approaching to near Zero- order kinetics.

Somadas Roy*, Manjanna K. M

Department of pharmaceutics, T.V.M.College of pharmacy, Bellary, Karnataka, India

The Application of Erythrocyte Rosette Test to Characterize T-Like Lymphocytes in the Mud Catfish

The Erythrocyte rosette test, a technique used to characterize T-lymphocytes using sheep red blood cells was evaluated to demonstrate T-like lymphocytes sub-population in the peripheral blood of the mud catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Forty eight young adult mud catfish weighing between 100-150g each were used in the study. The effects of thymectomy and injected anti lymphocyte serum on the degree of erythrocyte rosette formation were assessed. Rosette of sheep red blood cells around the mud catfish lymphocytes were observed in all experimental groups. The numbers of rosette formed were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the untreated group as compared to the treated group.

Nafarnda WD, Kawe SM, Agbede SA

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja, Nigeria

Potentiometric Studies of 3-Amino-5-Methyl Isoxazole Schiff Bases and Their Metal Complexes In Solution

The acid-base equillibria of Schiff bases derived from 3-amino-5-methyl isoxazole and substituted salicylaldehydes, 2-hydroxy napthaldehyde, 8-nitro-2-hydroxy napthaldehyde, and their Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complex formation equillibria were investigated by potentiometrically in aqua organic media at 303K and 0.1M KNO3. The data from the potentiometric titrations were evaluated by means of the BEST computer program. The effect of temperature and ionic strength on dissociation constant and stability constants of their complexes were studied. The corresponding thermodynamic parameter ΔG, ΔH and ΔS were calculated and discussed. The order of stability was found to be Co (II) < Ni (II) < Cu (II) > Zn (II). The concentration profile distribution of the complexes in solution has been evaluated.

R.Shakru, Sathish Kumar.K, Vijay Kumar Chityala and Shivraj*

Department of Chemistry, Osmania University, Hyderabad, A.P., India

Antibacterial Activity of Crab-Chitosan against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

The effect of crab-chitosan on the susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was studied. Chitosan which is known to own multiple functional properties has created significant interest among the researchers due to their biological activities and impending applications in the food, pharmaceutical and agricultural industries. The antimicrobial activities of chitosan against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were explored by calculation of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) in media supplemented with 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1300 and 1400 ppm chitosan adjusted to pH 6 or 7. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the prepared chitosan was 1200 and 1300 ppm for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli respectively.

Md. Monarul Islam*, Shah Md. Masum , Khandaker Rayhan Mahbub and Md. Zahurul Haque

Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR), Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Species Composition and Seasonal Fluctuations of Ciliates (Olygohymenophorea) from Nath Sagar Paithan District: Aurangabad (M.S.)

The present study is stretched over a period of one year, so as to record the species composition of ciliates. It is an attempt to correlate the seasonal fluctuations in population density of ciliates with some selected physic-chemical parameter’s. The parameters studied were temperature atmospheric and water, humidity, rainfall, pH, D.O., acidity, alkalinity, hardness, nitrogen, sulphate, chloride, phosphate and solids. The different species recorded from this major group of ciliates, olygohymenophorea were Glaucoma cintillans, Paramaecium caudatum and Vorticella campanula. The seasonal fluctuations in population density are discussed in relation to the physico-chemical parameters studied.

Vidya Pradhan*, J.D. Shaikh, Ranjana Patel

Dr. Rafiq Zakaria College for Women, Aurangabad (M.S.), India

Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Kalanchoe spanthulata Leaves Extract

With many of kalanchoe's traditional uses verified by animal research, it is not unusual that it continues to be a popular natural remedy throughout the tropics where it grows. In the present investigation anti-inflammatory and analgesic profile of Kalanchoe spanthulata has been explored using carrageenan induced paw oedema and tail flick method respectively. The obtained results indicate that Aqueous extracts of K. spanthulata in dose range of 100 and 200 mg/kg showed promising anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in experimental animals.

Neeraj K. Sharma*, Priyanka, K.K. Jha

College of Pharmacy, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, U.P., India

Prevalence of Vibrio Spp and Antibiogram of Isolates from Shrimp Rearing Ponds in Bangladesh

Forty eight water samples were collected from 12 shrimp rearing ponds in Khulna Division, southern part of Bangladesh. Fifteen Vibrio spp were isolated and identified and subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing against ten commercial antibiotic disks. 58% water samples were found positive for Vibrio spp. Among the isolates V. fischeri (40%) were the most prominent, followed by V. vulnificus (27%), V. anguillarum (26%), and V. cincinnatiensis (7%). Most of the Vibrio isolates were found to tolerate as much as 6% concentrations of NaCl and could not grow in culture medium without added salt. Antibiotic resistance pattern showed the highest resistance to ampicillin (100%), followed by amoxicillin (78%), nalidixic acid (40%), vancomycin (13.33%), neomycin (6.66%) and chloramphenicol (6.66%). All the Isolates were observed sensitive to gentamycin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and doxycyclin. Plasmid profiling of the isolates were conducted to observe if there any association of large plasmids with antibiotic resistance. Only 3 isolates were found to carry plasmid. Among them Vibrio anguillarum/P3 harbored four plasmids of 2.7, 3.0, 3.9 and 5.1 Kbp, Vibrio anguillarum/P1 harbored one plasmid of larger than 7.3 kbp and Vibrio cincinnatiensis/ P5H harbored one plasmid of larger than 30 kbp.

Khandaker Rayhan Mahbub, Komal Prasad Paul, Monzur Morshed Ahmed

Institute of Food Science and Technology, Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of the Crude Methanol Extract of Cassia singueana Leaves

The crude methanol extract of Cassia singueana leaves was subjected to chromatographic separation using column and thin layer chromatographic techniques. The eluted fractions were screened for bioactivity using indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. The extract yielded eight (8) component fractions. Fraction 8 (F8) exhibited the most profound anti-ulcer activity when it completely protected rat stomachs from experimentally-induced ulcerative effects caused by 40 mg/kg of oral indomethacin treatment. Further fractionation of F8 gave two second generation fractions (A and B). Sub-fraction 8A or 8B demonstrated a comparatively reduced in vivo anti-ulcer protective ability compared to the parent fraction (F8). The bioactive effects of the sub-fractions against indomethacin-induced ulcerogenic tendencies in rats appeared to be synergistic.

O.J. Ode, I.U. Asuzu, I.E. Ajayi

Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Abuja, PMB 117 Abuja, Nigeria

DFT Based QSAR Studies of Derivatives of Benzene Sulphonamide Using Quantum Chemical Descriptors

Heat of formation (ΔHf), molecular weight (MW), total energy (TE), HOMO energy (εHOMO), LUMO Energy (εLUMO), absolute hardness (η) and electronegativity (χ) have been used as descriptors for QSAR studies of derivatives of benzene sulphonamides. Best QSAR model PA1 has been developed using the descriptors viz. heat of formation, molecular weight, total energy and electronegativity which has regression coefficient above 0.91 and cross-validation coefficient above 0.88. These values indicate that the binding constant log K of the derivatives can be best predicted by the QSAR model PA1.

Rajesh Kumar Singh, Aakash Deep Raja

M. L. K. Post Graduate College, Balrampur, U.P., India

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