An advancement of analytical techniques in herbal research
As the demand and commercial value of the Herbal Medicines is increasing tremendously, assurance of safety, quality and efficacy of medicinal plants and herbal products is becoming a crucial issue. The need of the hour is to develop a systematic approach and well-designed methodologies for the standardization of herbal raw materials and herbal formulations. Standardization methods should take into consideration all aspects contributing to the quality of the herbal drugs. Herbal Medicines are composed of many constituents and are therefore very capable of variation. Hence it is very important to obtain reliable chromatographic fingerprints that represent pharmacologically active and chemically characteristic components of the Herbal Medicine.
Molecular Docking: An overview
Molecular docking provides useful information about drug receptor interactions and is frequently used to predict the binding orientation of small molecule drug candidates to their protein targets in order to predict the affinity and activity of the small molecule. Generally, classical mechanics based force field methods are used in the molecular docking. Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics methods have also been employed to predict the best structural fit between protein and ligand molecules. Most docking algorithms are able to generate a large number of possible structures and hence there is a need to score each structure to identify which are of most important. Thus docking problem is concerned with generation and evaluation of possible structures of protein ligand complexes.
Studies on hypoglycaemic activity of the different extracts of Spondias Mangifera Willd. Root
Diabetes, the most prevailing metabolic disorder is attracting present research attention towards it. In the present study, the various extracts of the roots of Spondias mangifera (Family: Anacardiaceae) was evaluated for hypoglycemic activity on adult Wistar albino rats at dose levels of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. respectively each using normoglycaemic, glucose loaded and alloxan induced hyperglycaemic rats. Glibenclamide (2.5 mg/kg) was used as reference standard for activity comparison. Among the tested extracts, the methanol extract was found to produce promising results that is comparable to that of the reference standard glibenclamide. The preliminary phytochemical examination of the methanol extract revealed presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins and terpenoids. The present work justifies the use of the roots in the folklore treatment in diabetes.
Effect of various super disintegrants on hardness, disintegration and dissolution of drug from dosage form
In this study the effect of various disintegrants on the disintegration time of Acetaminophen tablets has been determined. The disintegration directly related with the hardness of the tablets. The tablets were prepared using lactose as diluent and with different levels of disintegrants like Na Cmc and Avicel. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration time (DT) and dissolution study. The tablets were prepared by using wet granulation method and were evaluated in the similar way. Percentage drug release was estimated by using UV spectrophotometry method .The hardness, friability, dissolution rate and assay of prepared tablets were found to be acceptable according to standard limits of IP official pharmacopeias.
Adsorption of Nickel (II), Copper (II) and Iron (III) on raatrani leaf powder: Kinetics and equilibrium studies
Removal of Nickel (II), Copper (II) and Iron (III) from aqueous solutions using the adsorption process on Raatrani plant material has investigated. Physical, Chemical and Liquid phase adsorption, FT-IR characterization of Raatrani Leaf Powder (RLP) done by standard procedures studies on the removal of Ni (II), Cu (II) and Fe (III) ions were attempted by varying adsorbate dose, pH of the metal ion solution and time in batch mode. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted with Freundlich, Langmuir Isotherms and the Isotherms constant were evaluated. A time variation study indicates that adsorption follows pseudo-first order kinetics. pH was found to have significant role to play in the adsorption. The processes were exothermic and the thermodynamic parameters were evaluated.
Phytochemical screening and evaluation of antioxidant activity of Symploco Racemosa Roxb
Use of Antioxidant in cancer treatment is a rapidly evolving area. Antioxidants have been extensively studied for their ability to prevent cancer in humans. Symplocos racemosa roxb is an indigenous plant having ample medicinal application. Ethanolic extract of Symplocos racemosa roxb was subjected to various phytochemical screening tests. Antioxidant activity of the plant was evaluated against swiss albino mice. Result indicates that plant contains flavonoids, steroids, terpenoid, saponins, tannins, proteins and essential oil. Moreover ethanolic extract of Symplocos racemosa roxb had exhibited very good antioxidant activity.
Anticonvulsant and comparative Structure Activity Relationship of Pyridazine derivatives with currently clinically used Anticonvulsants
There has been considerable interest in the development of novel pyridazine and pyridazinone compounds with their anticonvulsant activity. Pyridazine and pyridazinones possessing a magic azometine –NH-N=CH- moiety. The pyridazinone also possessing cyclic amide moiety in their ring structures, constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development and the effect of a hydrophobic unit, hydrogen bonding domain and electron-donor group on the compound’s anticonvulsant activity. Therefore, many researchers have synthesized these compounds as target structures and evaluated their different pharmacological activities. These observations have been guiding for the development of new pyridazinones that possess potent anticonvulsant activity with less toxic or side effects.
Preparation and evaluation of controlled release acyclovir microspheres using factorial design
Acyclovir, a synthetic purine nucleoside, is the most widely used antiviral agent. The short plasma half-life of oral acyclovir (3h) and low oral bioavailability (10-30%) with slow, variable and incomplete absorption through GIT requires high frequency dosing which may results in damaging side effects. Thus, the aim of present work is development of competent and efficient sustained release microspheres, to reduce the frequency of administration, to achieve patient compliance. Chitosan microspheres of acyclovir were prepared by ionotropic gelation where a 32 full factorial design was employed to study the effect of independent variables viz. chitosan concentration(X1), tripolyphosphate concentration(X1), and glutaraldehyde concentration(X1) on entrapment efficiency, drug loading and t50.
Screening and optimization of L-Asparaginase- A tumour inhibitor from Aspergillus terreus through solid state fermentation
Thirty-five filamentous fungal isolates obtained from soil samples from different regions of Gulbarga, It was identified as Aspergillus terreus and screened for their ability to produce L-asparaginase. Using modified Czapek Dox agar containing L-asparagine and phenol red as indicator, all thirty five L-asparaginase producing fungal isolates could be preliminary identified by plate assay method, observing pink colour formation. It was found that Aspergillus terreus KLS2 exhibited highest activity. The Aspergillus terreus KLS2 were used for optimization of fermentation parameters like pH, temperature and inoculum size for L-asparaginase production through solid state fermentation by using carob pod as a substrate. The pH 4.5, temperature 35 0C and 1x107 spores /ml inoculum size were found optimum for maximum 6.05 IU of L-asparaginase production.
Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Investigation of Calendula Officinalis
In the present investigation the leaves of Calendula officinalis Linn (Asteraceae) were studied for their identification, morpho-anatomical, phytochemical characteristics and standardization parameters. Various pharmacognostic parameters including examination of morpho-anatomical, ash value, crude fibre, extractive value and LOD were studied. Phytochemical evaluation including examination of preliminary physicochemical screening and TLC profile has been done. Preliminary phytochemical investigation of different extracts of leaves of Calendula officinalis shows the presence of alkaloids, carotenoids, flavonoids, saponin steroid, tannin and tritrpenes