Cinnamon: A Pharmacological Review
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees), the evergreen tree of tropical area, a member of family Lauraceae, has been used in day to day routine as a spice and condiment in India. Literature review on cinnamon revealed that it chiefly contains essential oils and all other categories like cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamate. It has got good anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-ulcer, anti-microbial, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic potential. In clinical reports it was found very safe and useful in allergic conditions also. Current review describes the pharmacological potential of cinnamon in preclinical and clinical scenario.
Tissue culture of endangered Bael tree (Aegle marmelos ): A Review
Tissue culture is a proven means of producing millions of identical plants under a controlled and aseptic condition, independent of seasonal constraints. It not only provides economy of time and space but also gives greater output and allows further augmentation of elite disease free propagules.
Most of these crops have medicinal value and are suitable for growing under marginal situations. The commercial production of these crops is restricted due to the shortage of desirable planting material. Tissue culture can play an important role in rapidly increasing new cultivars of these fruit crops. This review paper outlines the work done on Aegle marmelos (Linn) family Rutaceae.
Aegle marmelos (Linn) family Rutaceae is highly reputed ayurvedic medicinal tree commonly known as the bale fruit tree, is medium sized tress growing throughout the deciduas forest of India of altitude 1200 meter. The collection and evaluation of over 1200 bael (Aegle marmelos Correa) trees in West Bengal was initiated in 1994. Six types have been identified as superior clones and are being conserved at the Faculty of Horticulture Research Station located at 23.5 North latitude and 89 East longitudes. Wide variability in yield (20–437 fruits/tree), fruit weight (130–1825 g), fruit shape, rind thickness, pulp colour, number of seeds, total soluble solids (23–42 °Brix), fruit acidity (0.23–0.44%) and ascorbic acid (22–30 mg/100 g) content of fruit were observed among the genotypes. The clones T1, T5, T8, T10, T15 and T16 were selected for cultivation. The method standardised could be used for large scale planting material production and conservation of this important endangered medicinal plant. The hardened plants are being evaluated under field condition. The micropropagated plants were tested for its genetic fidelity using 12 RAPD, 2 micro-satellite and 2 mini-satellite primers. Profile obtained by all the three single primer amplification reaction (SPAR) technique obtained from mother tree and micropropagated plants were found identical which suggests the genetic uniformity of micropropagated plants with that of mother tree.
Pharmacological Potential of Ayurvedic Formulation: Kutajghan Vati- A Review
Kutajghan Vati is a classical Ayurvedic anti-dysentery preparation which calms aggravated kapha and pitta specifically located in digestive system. It helps retrieve normal tone of intestine by reducing inflammation of small and large intestine promotes healing in colonic ulcers and restores proper digestion thus prevents nutritional deficiency and keeps body's strength intact. Kutajaghana is said to be tridoshghna (Pacifies all the three Doshas) i.e. it is useful in management of diseases with their origin in either of the Dosha or all of them. This review explains the pharmacological potential of Kutajghan Vati and helps the research to explode more about this formulation.
Photocatalytic Degradation of Pb(II) By Using Different Semiconducting Materials
A various processes are used for removal of metals from industrial wastewaters. The relatively newest technology of which is photocatalysis. The removal of hazardous metals Pb (II) by using semiconducting materials as Titanium dioxide, Zinc oxide as well as Cadmium sulphide from wastewater. In this study, photocatalysis processes had been employed for the removal of lead at different pH from 2 to 11, the detention time was kept constant (180 min). Results indicated that the removal were 98.8% for Pb (II) at pH 6 and shows optimum efficiencies. These results were all obtained best in the use of UV irradiation and 0.6 g/L TiO2. These results are considered for all industrial treatment plants which have experienced the problem of this hazardous metal in their effluents. The kinetic studies were used to interpret the data of this investigated system. The semiconducting materials TiO2 had higher degradation capacity than the ZnO and CdS. Results indicate that Lagergrin second order fits better for the removal of Pb (II).
Synthesis, Characterization, Anti-Tumor and Anti-Microbial Activity of Fatty Acid Analog of 2, 6-Diisopropylphenol
Derivative of 2, 6-diisopropylphenol (propofol) was prepared by coupling with 9-hydroxy-11-Z-octadecenoic acid (isolated from seed oil of Holarrhena antidysenterica) with the C1-α-hydroxy function of 2, 6-diisopropylphenol. The coupling reaction between fatty acid and propofol was carried out by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide in the presence of catalytic amount of dimethylaminopyridine to produce quantitative yield of the desired product. Spectroscopic studies confirmed the formation of the desired product. The compound was then investigated for its in-vitro anticancer activity against a panel of solid human tumor cell lines including HeLa, MCF-7 and HL-60(human leukemia) cells. Its cytotoxicity was also determined against non-cancerous mammalian cells (VERO cells) for comparison. The analog was cytotoxic against all cancer cell lines whereas no effect was observed against normal cells. The compound was also screened for its antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus and S. albus. The compound show good antimicrobial activity against E. coli and S. albus.
Study on Effect of Solvents & Nonsolvents on Microspheres of Ciprofloxacin: Coacervation Phase Separation
The objective of the study was to determine the effect of solvents like acetone, dimethyldigol, 1, 4-dioxan and non-solvents like n-hexane and chloroform on microencapsulation of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride. The microspheres were prepared by following coacervation phase separation using various non- aqueous solvents and non-solvents like solvent evaporation and non-solvent addition method with rate retarding cellulose polymers. Microspheres were characterized for the particle size distribution, wall thickness by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), angle of repose, bulk density, percent drug content, entrapment efficiency and in vitro dissolution studies. Drug excipient compatibility was determined by FTIR and DSC. Accelerated stability studies were also carried out following ICH Guidelines. SEM revealed that microspheres were found spherical, free flowing and porous. The wall thickness and entrapment efficiency was found in between 86.26 μ & 118.77 μ, 62.12% & 98.29 % respectively. The drug release was extended maximum upto 12hours with cellulose acetate using 1-4 dioxan as solvent and upto 12 hours with cellulose acetate phthalate using 1,4-dioxan and dimethyldigol. FTIR and XRD spectra results showed ciprofloxacin hydrochloride was compatible with excipients. The curve fitting data revealed that the release followed first order kinetics and higuchi’s and peppas plots stated non-fickian and diffusion controlled where dimethyldigol and 1,4 dioxan as solvent polymer showed effect over the size and release kinetics.
Characterization of Antioxidant activity of Streptomyces species VITTK3 isolated from Puducherry Coast, India
The aim of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant activity of intracellular and extracellular metabolites of Streptomyces species isolated from marine soil sample collected at the Bay of Bengal coast of Puducherry, India. The sample was serially diluted and plated on Starch casein agar and the white powdery colonies formed indicated the growth of actinomycetes and selectively isolated by plated on ISP 1 medium. The broth culture of the same media was used for fermentation process and intracellular and extracellular metabolites were extracted using solvents acetone and ethyl acetate. The brown colored extract obtained was dissolved in water and screened for DPPH radical scavenging activity. The extracellular metabolite showed 96% inhibition at 5mg/ ml, however intracellular metabolites showed only 22% of inhibition at 5 mg/ ml of intracellular metabolites and the inhibition was compared with the standard antioxidant ascorbic acid which showed 97% inhibition at 5mg/ ml concentration. The potential strain was characterized by polyphasic molecular taxonomic approach. The strain was identified as Streptomyces species and designated as Streptomyces sp. VITTK3. The 16 S rDNA sequence was submitted to the Genbank under the accession number GU808333. The phylogenetic tree by neighbor joining Kimura method showed 97% similarity with Streptomyces cebimarensis with the bootstrap value of 20. Secondary structure and the restriction sites were predicted for the strain Streptomyces sp. VITTK3.
Improvisation of Dioxazine Pigments and their Pigmentory Properties
Monosulphonation of dioxazine pigment (Pigment Violet 23) has been carried out at degree of sulphonation 1.15. A new additive has been than prepared by coupling sulpho derivative with long chain amine [Arquad 2HT-75 (Di (hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethyl ammonium chloride)]. Effect of addition of sulpho derivative and new additive on pigmentory properties in solvent base ink has been measured. Addition of sulpho derivative and additive in dioxazine pigment (Pigment Violet 23) improve the pigmentory properties like viscosity, gloss and transparency.
Effect of Synergist on Pigment Violet 23
There is a need in the area of solvent dispersion of organic pigments for products of lower viscosity (i.e. fluidity) and improved transparency and gloss. This is especially a need in the area of solvent inks for packaging applications. The solvents in these inks are typically oxygenated types and alcohols (ethanol, propanols), esters (ethyl acetate, isopropyl acetate) and ethers (mono methyl ether of propylene glycol), or mixtures of it. The typical resins dissolved in these solvents for formulating packaging inks are nitrocellulose, polyamide, polyurethane and polyvinyl butyrate.
Preparation of Mono sulphonation of Dioxazine compound is carried out with controlled Degree of Sulphonation like 0.9. After that this mono sulphonated mass is coupled with long chain Amine (C10-C18) and prepared new additive.
Effect of this sulphonated mass and additive is measured by addition into pigments. This effect is measured in solvent base ink application and found that due to effect of this sulphonated mass and additive gives excellent flow with improved gloss and transparency.
Effects of Diminazene Aceturate and Ivermectin Administration on Semen and Serum Parameters of the Red Sokoto Buck
Twenty seven red Sokoto bucks, at the age of 2 years and weighing between 32–34kg were used. After administration of the drugs, semen and sera samples were collected 1, 24, 72, and 192 hours for analysis. The parameters studied namely semen volume, percentage motility of sperm, sperm concentration, live sperm percentage, semen glucose level, serum testosterone and serum follicle stimulating hormone were found to decrease significantly (P<0.05) when compared with the pre treatment group throughout the collection period. However, the drugs did not affect the live sperm percentage and ivermectin did not affect semen glucose level. A relationship was established between spermatological characteristics and serum testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone levels. These findings indicate that the drugs investigated in this study decreased semen parameters and serum testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone. It was concluded that diminazene aceturate and ivermectin should be used cautiously in red Sokoto bucks meant for breeding due to the deleterious effects they were observed to have on fertility parameters.