NANOTECHNOLOGY ADVANCES AND IPR
Advancement in the various fields of technologies like nanotechnology, biotechnology, databases, genetic resources, computer software etc. increases the trend of their commercial exploitation. This has triggered the efforts of industries, organizations, or individuals to fit in subject matters into the IPR (Intellectual Property Rights) regime, more particularly in the patent system.
The utilization of newer nanotechnologies for the development of useful products requires large economic investments. Even after development of these products, they may need to undergo screening and trials in order to be declared safe and effective utilization. Many such products get rejected even at the last stages of trials and all the investments made in such product development are wasted. Hence when any such product passes all regulatory tests and obtains market authorization, the organization, in order to recoup all the investments made in product development, are keen to obtain strong legal protection (like patents) against anyone trying to free ride on the developed product by copying it. Once a product hits the market, the reverse engineering or copying the chemical formula is quite simple and inexpensive matter. This necessitates the demand of intellectual property protection; but it may not be easy to protect them by just restricting in the conventional framework of copyright, patent and trademarks. There are also some efforts to develop new legal frameworks to meet demands of these new technologies. This note highlights various implications of IPR on novel nanotechnological development.
NUTRITIONAL AND PHARMCEUTICAL BENIFITS OF AVOCADO PLANT
Persea Americana Mill. or Avocado is a tropical native American fruit. It belongs to the Lauraceae family. The name ‘Avocado’ has been derived from the Aztec word ‘ahucatl’. ‘Alligator pear’ and ‘butter fruit’ are its’ alternative names. It has been traditionally cultivated for food and medicinal purposes due to its high nutrition content as well as for its therapeutic properties. The predominant carotenoid in Avocado is Lutein. α-carotene, β-carotene, zeaxanthin, neoxanthin and violaxanthin are the other carotenoids present in small quantities in it. Avocado plant and their seed, fruit, pulp, avocado oil part use for various type of activity as cosmetic, refined cooking oil, weight management program, heart disease, stroke and cancer.
IN VITRO CALLUS INDUCTION AND HIGH FREQUENCY SHOOT REGENERATION FROM LEAF EXPLANTS OF SOLANUM PUBESCENS WILLD
An efficient protocol for the shoot regeneration of Solanum pubescens Willd. using leaf derived callus induction has been described. The optimum callusing was observed when leaf explants were cultured on MS medium augmented with 3.0 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) 1.0 mg/l 1-Napthaleneaceticacid (NAA) and 0.5 mg/l Indoleacetic acid (IAA). The couple were subcultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of (BAP 3.0 mg/l), kinetin (KIN 1.2 mg/l) alone or in combination with Gibberellic acid (GA3 0.5 mg/l) for shoot regeneration. The highest shoot regeneration in terms of percent response was found to be 99%. The regenerated shoots were transferred in to half strength MS medium fortified with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for root induction. Rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized. The protocol described here could be used for the mass multiplication and conservation of this plant.
STANDARDIZATION AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY POTENTIAL OF AMOORA ROHITUKA AND MELIA AZEDARACH BELONGS TO FAMILY MELIACEAE
The Meliaceae plants are known to be rich sources of limonoids. A number of limonoids have been isolated from several genera of Meliaceae and some of them exhibit anticancer, antimalarial, cytotoxic, antiprotozoal, antifeedant and many various activities. Anti-inflammatory effect of the alcoholic, hydroalcohalic (40:60) and aqueous extracts of the Amoora rohituka and Melia azedarach stem barks were studied in albino rat using the carageenan induced rat paw oedema method. The hydro alcoholic extracts of both the stem barks found to inhibit the carageenan induced rat paw oedema at dose of 100 mg/kg p.o., where the standard drug was Indomethacin at dose 10 mg/kg p.o. The results indicated that the hydro alcoholic extracts of Amoora rohituka and Melia azedarach stem barks produced significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory effect when compared with Indomethacin as standard at dose 10 mg/kg p.o.
EVALUATION OF ANTI-ULCER POTENTIAL OF 80% ETHANOL EXTRACT OF DESMODIUM CANESCENS (L) DC. (FABAECAE) USING THE RAT MODEL OF ASPRIN-INDUCED ULCERS
Desmodium canescens (L) DC (Fabaeceae) is used by the Chagga tribe of Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania to treat peptic ulcers. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-ulcer potential of the ethanol extract of the aerial part of the plant. The extract was prepared by placing the plant materials in a glass percolator with 80% ethanol and allowed to stand at room temperature for 24 hours. The percolate was collected, filtered and concentrated by using a rotary evaporator at the temperature of 40°C. The extract so obtained was weighed and the yield was 14%. The toxicity of the extract was evaluated in mice and was found to be non toxic up to 5000mg/kg without any death. Phytochemical screening showed that, the 80% ethanol extract contains saponins, tannins, terpenoids, flavanoids and alkaloids. For evaluation of anti-ulcer activity, the crude ethanol extract of DC was orally administered to rats one hour before ulcer induction. The 80% ethanol extract of DC showed protection against aspirin induced gastric ulceration. The extract protected the rat stomach from ulceration by 76%, 94%, 96% at doses of (200, 350 and 600) mg/kg respectively (P≤0.001), as compared to solvent treated rats. Ranitidine, the histamine blocker, 30mg/kg protected the rat stomach by 100%. Pathological analysis of the rat stomach treated by DC extract showed that, there was increased protection of the epithelium lining of the rat stomach with increasing dose of the extract (protection in dose response manner). The results support the use of DC as a herbal medicine for peptic ulcers. The group of compounds found in the extract may have contributed to its anti-ulcer potential.
ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL SCREENING OF AMOORA ROHITUKA, MELIA AZEDARACH AND SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA STEM BARKS
Human kind has been subject to infections by micro-organisms since before the dawn of recorded history. One presumed that mankind has been searching for suitable therapy for all infections. The Amoora rohituka, Melia azedarach and Soymida febrifuga belongs to same family i.e. Meliaceae. The Meliaceae plants are known to be rich sources of limonoids. A number of limonoids have been isolated from several genera of Meliaceae and some of this exhibit anticancer, antimalarial, cytotoxic, antiprotozoal, antifeedant and many various activities. The stem barks of Amoora rohituka, Melia azedarach and Soymida febrifuga exist these common therapeutic activities. The antibacterial and antifungal screening of alcoholic, hydroalcohalic (40:60) and aqueous extracts of Amoora rohituka, Melia azedarach and Soymida febrifuga stem barks were studied against gram’s positive bacteria, gram’s negative bacteria and fungal strains using Agar cup method. Alcoholic, hydroalcohalic (40:60) and aqueous extracts of Amoora rohituka, Melia azedarach and Soymida febrifuga stem barks extracts were used at dose of 500 mcg/cup, where the standard antibacterial drug was Kanamycin at dose of 500 mcg/cup and 30 mcg/cup and standard antibacterial drug was Ketoconazole at dose of 100 mcg/cup and 30 mcg/cup. The results indicated that the hydroalcoholic extracts of Amoora rohituka, Melia azedarach and Soymida febrifuga stem barks have significant antibacterial and antifungal activities when compared to standards.
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLET OF PARACETAMOL
Fast dissolving tablets (FDTs) are novel types of tablets that disintegrate or disperse in saliva within few seconds without water. Paracetamol was used as a model drug in this formulation. Paracetamol is widely prescribed antipyretic and analgesic drug for all age groups. All the formulations were prepared using direct compression method, which is a conventional method of preparation. Various parameters like pre &post-compressional parameters were tested and final formula was selected based on in-vitro dispersion time and in-vitro dissolution profile. Where, all the formulations were dispersed < 40 seconds and F6 formulation was showing 100% release at 25 minute and faster, compared to the marketed formulation and the formulation was found to be stable.