JOURNAL OF ADVANCED SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: CHANGES, STRATEGIES AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
This editorial note covers the basic amendments that have been adopted by the journal in recent past, a welcome note form new Editor-in-Chief. He talks about the strategies to be observed to make JASR a milestone in the field of scientific publishing and future plans to achieve the goal.
MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION OF DRUGS INDUCED END STAGE RENAL DISEASE
Under normal conditions each of the two million nephrons of the kidney work in an organized approach to filter, reabsorb, and excrete various solutes and water. The kidney is a primary regulator of sodium and water as well as acid-base homeostasis. The kidney also produces hormones necessary for red blood cell synthesis and calcium homeostasis. Impairment of normal kidney function is often referred to as renal insufficiency. Based on the time course of development, renal insufficiency has historically been divided into two broad categories. Acute renal failure (ARF) refers to the rapid loss of renal function over days to weeks. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also called chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) by some, is defined as a progressive loss of function occurring over several months to years, and is characterized by the gradual replacement of normal kidney architecture with interstitial fibrosis. Progressive kidney disease or nephropathy is generally synonymous with CKD, and the two phrases are often used interchangeably. The working group of the National Kidney Foundation’s Kidney Dialysis Outcomes and Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) has recently developed a new scheme to classify CKD based on the presence of kidney damage, structural or functional, for ≥3 months, with or without decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from normal values of approx.120 mL/min. CKD is further categorized by the level of kidney function (as defined by GFR) into stages 1 through 5.1 Although these stages are defined later in this review, it is necessary to denote at this point that Stage 5 was previously referred to as End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) or End-Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD). The aim of this review article is, focus on the medical therapies which induces nephrotoxicity.
DIABETES MELLITUS: AN OVERVIEW
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder resulting from a defect in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. The condition itself introduces a need for patient’s lifestyle adjustment to the disease and a number of everyday therapeutic and diagnostic restrictions. The main indication of diabetes mellitus is a hyperglycemia in blood which is due to inappropriate pancreatic insulin secretion or low insulin-directed fostering of glucose by target cells. It is silent killer disease and affects millions of people in the world. It is estimated that in 2010 there was globally 285 million people suffering from this disease. This number is estimated to increase to 430 million in the absence of better control or cure. Different types of diabetes mellitus, type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes and other types of diabetes mellitus are compared in terms of diagnostic criteria, etiology and genetics. As the disease progresses tissue or vascular damage ensures leading to severe diabetic complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, cardiovascular complications and ulceration. Currently available pharmacotherapy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus includes insulin and hypoglycemic agents. These drugs act by increasing the secretion of insulin form pancreas or reducing plasma glucose concentrations by increasing glucose uptake and decreasing gluconeogenesis.Comobrid mental diseases can further negatively influence the course of diabetes. They are specially depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders and cognitive disorders including dementia. Various herbal drugs have been also proved effective due to their beneficial contents in treatment of diabetes. This article focuses on the causes, types, diagnosis and treatment of diabetes.
CHENOPODIUM ALBUM: A MIRACULOUS TREASURE OF THERAPEUTIC SPECULARITIES
Consciousness regarding medicinal potential of plants is emerging since thousands of years back. But yet it can be concluded that the plant sources remain since the existence of human kind to treat their abnormal physical conditions. It has also been established that excursions, accepted by cultural attributers of aboriginal civilizations, gained appreciable information about the consumption of plants for their therapeutic potentials. Chenopodium album is great wellspring of practical supplements and has restorative properties. It can be joined in various expelled sustenance items to make them more nutritious, more advantageous and in addition shopper arranged. The expansion of its leaves to expelled items can upgrade the synthetic and wholesome parameters and can enhance expelled items as practical nourishments. The plants likewise have high natural exercises thus might be of awesome therapeutic esteem. Business abuse of Chenopodium album in numerous districts of the world is still a long way from reality. The dynamic constituents can be disengaged and additionally assessed for the advancement of helpful medications. Their cancer prevention agent and antibacterial exercises additionally loan trustworthiness to the natural estimation of this plant.
SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 2-SUBSTITUTED HYDRAZINO-6-FLUORO-1, 3-BENZOTHIAZOLES AS ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS
Benzothiazole moiety is expanding its pharmaceutical importance and has been studied frequently for the exploration of pharmacological assistance in varied pharmacological circumstances. In the present investigation a series of 2-substituted hydrazino-6-fluoro-1,3-benzothiazole derivatives was synthesized via the synthesis of 2-hydrazino-6-fluorobenzothiazole and subsequent condensation with substituted acetophenones. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their possible anti-inflammatory activity. The structures of few representative compounds were elucidated by IR and NMR. For the present work efficacy of compounds was determined by carageenan induced paw oedema method which was comparable with that of Indomethacin (10mg/kg/ml). The results of the study demonstrated moderate to good inhibitory impact of the synthesized compounds on induced inflammation.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND TERMICIDAL ACTIVITY OF SCORODOCARPUS BORNEENSIS BECC BARK EXTRACTS
The chemical compositions of the bark extracts of Scorodocarpus borneensis plant extracted successively with ethanol, n-hexane and ethyl acetate was analyzed by GC/GCMS. The preliminary phytochemical screening conducted on the crude bark extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenoid, phenolic, flavonoids, steroid and saponin which are known to support the bioactive activities of the plant in folk medicine. The anti-termite activity of S.borneensis of the two extracts from different solvents against Coptotermes curvignathus was evaluated in the present research study. It was found that the ethyl acetate extracts are more toxic than that of n-hexane extract against the C. curvignathus. The result showed that ethyl acetate and n-hexane extracts exhibited termite mortality with LC50 values 0.013% and 0.029%. Anti-feedant index of S.boornensis extract on C. curvignathus was shown that index the n-hexane extract and ethyl acetate C. curvignathus were varied from 0.209% to 14.041%. No difference anti-feedant index category for two extract, suggested that the n-hexane and ethyl acetate fraction delivered as toxic to subterranean termites. We hereby report for the first time the major compounds from the n-hexane extracts of S.boornensis to be 9-octadecenoic acid (36.50%), hexadecanoic acid (16.68%) methyl 9 octadecenate (15.39%) and octadecanoic acid (4.00%) and the ethyl acetate extract showed the existence of beta-methyl glucocide (23.40%), hexadecanoic (15.56%),1, 2-benzenadicarboxylic acid, bis (2-ethyl (hexyl) ester(12.34%), 9-hexadecenoic acid (12.72%), 3-phenyl-2-propenoicacid (7.53%), bezophenone (6.64%), 5-oxymethyl furfurole (4.78%), 9, 12-octadeca-dienoic acid (3.17%), beta-D-mannofuranoside (2.75%), methyl-m-dioxane (2.23%), hexadedioic acid (2.11%) respectively; all of which contribute individually and or synergistically to the biological activities reported in this study.
PREPARATION & EVALUATION OF β-CYCLODEXTRINS INCLUSION COMPLEXES OF LORNOXICAM FOR SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT
Lornoxicam is an Anti-Inflammatory Drug which has been widely used but is poorly water soluble. Thus, in the present, an attempt was made to enhance the water solubility by complexation with methyl-β-cyclodextrin to modify the physicochemical properties of Lornoxicam (LX) for solubility enhancement. Among these various Lornoxicam with β-CD inclusion complexes, K5 (1:5) formulations prepared by kneading method shows faster dissolution rate. The concept of formulating Fast Dissolving tablets of LX- β-CD inclusion complex using Effervescent agent i.e. Sodium bicarbonate, Citric Acid offers a suitable and practical approach of faster disintegration and dissolution characteristics. All formulations were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, percent swelling index, in vitro dissolution study, their release kinetics and stability study. Drug and polymers were subjected to compatibility study using FT-IR spectroscopy, which suggests that, there was no interaction between drug and polymers and concluded that the drug, polymers and excipients were compatible to each other. From the in-vitro dissolution studies, a direct relationship of concentration of effervescent agent with drug release was found. F6 showed optimized release with 99.5% drug release at the end of 30 min, i.e. Immediate Release pattern. Further optimized formulation was subjected to stability testing for 2 months at Room temperature and 45ºC/75RH.
SYNTHESIS OF ZEOLITE-A FROM LOCALLY AVAILABLE FULLER’S EARTH IN KARNATAKA, INDIA
In this investigation, Zeolite-A, has been synthesized using Fuller’s earth, a naturally occurring clay in the Gulbarga region of Karnataka, India. Silica and alumina are the chief source minerals for the formation of zeolites. Fuller's earth used in this work, containing about 48.523 % silica and 9.682 % of alumina has been used to synthesize a zeolitic material by conventional alkali fusion-hydrothermal method. NaOH was used as an activator and mineralizer at an optimum temperature, to form soluble sodium silicate and sodium aluminate that converted to zeolite during hydrothermal treatment. Hydrothermal treatment was carried out at a specific temperature and time period to convert the aged material, into a porous crystalline zeolitic material. XRD and FTIR analysis carried out on the final products confirmed the type of zeolite formed. Highly valuable zeolites that can be used as catalyst, adsorbent and as ion exchange material can be synthesized from the naturally available inexpensive, local clay.