CANCER: ADVANCED APPROACHES OF TREATMENT
Cancer incidences are increasing worldwide. The majority of patients are diagnosed in advanced stage, requiring systemic therapy. Hence chemotherapy has been the traditional mainstay of treatment for such patients. Unfortunately such therapy acts in a non specific manner, resulting in significant toxicity; therefore there has been an urgent need to find alternate avenues of management for such patients.Cancer incidences are increasing worldwide. The majority of patients are diagnosed in advanced stage, requiring systemic therapy. Hence chemotherapy has been the traditional mainstay of treatment for such patients. Unfortunately such therapy acts in a non specific manner, resulting in significant toxicity; therefore there has been an urgent need to find alternate avenues of management for such patients.Cancer incidences are increasing worldwide. The majority of patients are diagnosed in advanced stage, requiring systemic therapy. Hence chemotherapy has been the traditional mainstay of treatment for such patients. Unfortunately such therapy acts in a non specific manner, resulting in significant toxicity; therefore there has been an urgent need to find alternate avenues of management for such patients.
A CONCISE OVERVIEW OF THE SOLVENT AIDED SEPARATION AND EXTRACTION BASED ON THE PLASTICS WASTE
Although technological advancement has been a boon to modern science, somehow it has also been the necessary evil in terms of scientific developments. A research conducted by Barba and Guitierrez in the year 2008 highlighted that most of the waste plastics are landfills or incinerations . Furthermore, 87.6% of the same is contributing to the number of toxic pollutants generated from plastic waste . The average global plastic recycling rate is only about 18% which is much below the standardized numerical figure of around 73.2%1. Since the advent of the first synthetic plastic, the usage of plastic has grown dramatically and is containing to increase.
BIOREMEDIATION OF ARSENIC (III) AND CHROMIUM (VI) FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY LIVING CELLS OF PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA MTCC 3604: EQUILIBRIUM, KINETIC AND THERMODYNAMIC STUDIES
The present research is to investigate the bioremediation of arsenic (III) and chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions by living cells of Pseudomonas putida (MTCC 3604) biomass. The various batch parameters affecting the treatment process like biosorbent dose, pH, initial concentration, contact time and temperature are investigated. The maximum removal capacity of Pseudomonas putida for arsenic (III) and chromium (VI) was found to be 45.04 mg/g and 52.94 mg/g, respectively, at optimum conditions of pH 5.5, contact time of 1 hr, biomass dosage of 4 g/L, and temperature of 25˚C. Biosorption data are fitted to linearly transformed Langmuir isotherm of arsenic (III) and chromium (VI) better than other isotherms with the correlation coefficient (R2> 0.99). Pseudomonas putida cell surface was characterized using SEM-EDX and FTIR. The arsenic (III) and chromium (VI) ions were desorbed from Pseudomonas putida using both 1M HCl and 1M HNO3. The recovery for arsenic (III) and chromium (VI) ions was found to be higher than 88%. The pseudo-second-order equation described is the best kinetic rate-controlling-step than other model with the correlation coefficient (R2> 0.99). Thermodynamic parameters are also calculated to study the effect of temperature on the removal process. The result reveals the exothermic, spontaneous, and feasible nature of removal process of arsenic (III) and chromium (VI) onto the living biomass of Pseudomonas putida.
BIOACCUMULATION POTENTIAL AND TOXICITY OF ARSENITE USING ROOTED-SUBMERGED VALLISNERIA SPIRALIS IN A HYDROPONIC CULTURE AND ITS CHARACTERIZATION STUDIES
In this study, the bioaccumulation technique was used to removal of arsenite from water using naturally occurring macrophyte plant Vallisneria spiralis. Plants were treated in deionized water with nutrient solution at pH 6.8. Experiments were conducted at different concentration of arsenite solution with 0, 0.10, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg As/L as arsenic trioxide (As2O3). After 20 days experiment the highest accumulation arsenite concentrations in roots 9.52 mg kg-1, dry weight and shoots 36.52 mg kg-1, dry weight treated with 1 mg/L arsenite solutions. Vallisneria spiralis shoot biomass was characterized using SEM-EDX and FTIR. Arsenite translocation and detoxification processes in plant cells in presence of bacterial arsenate reductase enzyme and glutathione. The arsenite accumulation and relative growth of plants on differential concentration of arsenite solutions were significantly increased with the passage of time.
GREEN CONVERSION OF WASTE FRUIT RINDS IN TO BIOETHANOL
Biomass is a major energy source accounting for 10-14% of the world’s energy supply. The fruit rinds are major biomass contains carbohydrates that are the ideal raw material for conversion into bio fuels majorly ethanol. The hydrolysed monosaccharide’s after physical and enzymatic methods were converted to alcohol by the process of fermentation.
The bacteria which were used for saccharification were enumerated by physical methods involving the study of morphology, colony characteristics and staining techniques followed by the biological methods such as biochemical analysis and cellulose degrading activity and also molecular methods involving the sequencing of the 16srRNA of the bacteria. The bacteria which were used for saccharification i.e. H1 isolated from horse dung was identified as Bacillus circulans and C3 isolated from cow dung was identified as Bacillus subtilis, the yeast isolated from musk melon (G7) was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae by 18s rRNA sequencing, where G1 was the standard culture Cellulomonas fimi.
The saccharification process thus aided the fermentation process to occur more efficiently and thus yield more ethanol. Since the amount of utilizable sugars was high in the fruit rinds of Carica papayayielded more amount of ethanol withBacillus subtilis (60±2.04), followed by Psidium guajavawith Bacillus subtilis (53.75±1.02) and then Solanum lycopersicum with Cellulomonas fimi (43.75±1.02).
The FTIR analysis of the Carica papayasample saccharified with Bacillus subtilisshowed the most characteristic peak in bio ethanol spectrum is peak one at 3429.49 cm-1 that lies between 3200-3550cm-1 which relates to alcohol (O-H) vibrations.
MUTAGENEIC EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY OF ETHYL METHANE SULPHONATE AND DIETHYL SULPHATE IN FOXTAILMILLET (Setaria Italica [L.] P. BEAUV.) VAR. CO(Te)7
The present investigation was carried out to determine the Lethality, Injury, Pollen grain sterility, Effectiveness and Efficiency induced by EMS (Ethyl methane sulphonate) in the concentration 20mM,30mM,40mM and DES (Diethyl sulphate) in the concentration 30mM, 40mM, 50mM. The M2 generation seeds were subjected to observe the mutation frequency which acts as an inducing factor for these variations. The Lethality was found to be increased with increase in the concentration. In EMS the Maximum Effectiveness was observed in the low concentration of 20mM (0.35%) and in DES in the concentration of 30mM (0.24%) and the Efficiency was observed to be maximum in the concentration 20mM (44.76%) EMS and (39.92%) in 30mM of DES. EMS was more effective and efficient in stimulating variability in fox tail millet than DES. Therefore the mutants of Setaria italica var. Co (Te) 7 with less biological damage and high mutation frequency can be developed at low concentration of EMS and DES can be chosen for plant breeding in Fox tail millet.
COMPARING THE REMOTELY SENSED CHROMOPHORIC DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER (CDOM) PRODUCT WITH IN-SITU CDOM IN THE NORTHERN BAY OF BENGAL
Assessment of the role of estuarine-carbon fluxes is essential to improve the estimates of global carbon budget. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in aquatic carbon cycling. Chromophoric fraction of DOM (CDOM) is considered to be the major component of the dissolved natural organic matter (DNOM) in natural waters. CDOM also has many important effects on aquatic ecology and chemistry. Understanding the distribution and dynamics of CDOM thus is broadly important to monitoring, assessment and management of surface waters, and remote sensing is especially attractive for monitoring purposes because of its ability to make measurements at regional and even larger scales. The CDOM can be readily detected via in situ and remotely-sensed optical measurements. DOM properties, including CDOM absorption coefficient at 443 nm (aCDOM(443)) was examined in northern Bay of Bengal (nBoB), using in situ and satellite observations during February, 2015 - January, 2016. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between in-situ measured CDOM and remotely sensed CDOM product in the nBoB. This is the first attempt to compare the remotely sensed CDOM product with in-situ CDOM in the northern Bay of Bengal. Present study revealed that remotely sensed CDOM product could be use after 50 km away from the shoreline in the nBoB.