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DIABETES MELLITUS: AN OVERVIEW

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder resulting from a defect in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. The condition itself introduces a need for patient’s lifestyle adjustment to the disease and a number of everyday therapeutic and diagnostic restrictions. The main indication of diabetes mellitus is a hyperglycemia in blood which is due to inappropriate pancreatic insulin secretion or low insulin-directed fostering of glucose by target cells. It is silent killer disease and affects millions of people in the world. It is estimated that in 2010 there was globally 285 million people suffering from this disease. This number is estimated to increase to 430 million in the absence of better control or cure. Different types of diabetes mellitus, type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes and other types of diabetes mellitus are compared in terms of diagnostic criteria, etiology and genetics. As the disease progresses tissue or vascular damage ensures leading to severe diabetic complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, cardiovascular complications and ulceration. Currently available pharmacotherapy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus includes insulin and hypoglycemic agents. These drugs act by increasing the secretion of insulin form pancreas or reducing plasma glucose concentrations by increasing glucose uptake and decreasing gluconeogenesis.Comobrid mental diseases can further negatively influence the course of diabetes. They are specially depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders and cognitive disorders including dementia. Various herbal drugs have been also proved effective due to their beneficial contents in treatment of diabetes. This article focuses on the causes, types, diagnosis and treatment of diabetes.


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