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OM Prakash Bansal
Mukesh Kumar Bhardwaj
Viniti Gupta


Background: Per and Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), a group of more than 7,800 synthetic heterogeneous organic compounds with different physicochemical properties, are chemically and thermally stable. Since 1945, these compounds have been used for innovative developments in the field of material sciences to provide numerous benefits to society. These compounds have  oil and water-resistant properties and are used as refrigerants and fire suppressors, in the textile industry, paint industry, electronic industry, cookware industry etc.

Objectives: This review documents the concentration of the most commonly used Per and Polyfluoroalkyl substances in the aquatic environment, milk samples, soil, plants, vegetables, fruits, fish and their impact on humans

Results: Due to overuse and misuse of these compounds in different industries, these persistent pollutants are present in all the compartments of the environment, i.e. air, surface water, groundwater, river water, marine water, drinking water, soil, animal and breast milk, food chain, vegetables, fruits, and fish. In the 21st Century, these chemicals, along with antibiotics, are considered the most harmful persistent organic pollutants. The wastewater generated by households, industries, and armed force areas is a hotspot of the residual PFAS. Human health is adversely affected by consuming PFAS-contaminated plant produce and animal food and by drinking PFAS-contaminated water. On accumulation in humans, it affects the immune system, alters the lipid metabolism, endocrine activity, thyroid gland and mammary gland functioning. 


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How to Cite
Bansal, O., Bhardwaj, M., & Gupta, V. (2022). PER AND POLYFLUOROALKYL SUBSTANCES (PFAS) IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A REVIEW. Journal of Advanced Scientific Research, 13(07), 1-25. Retrieved from
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