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Toxicological effect of pulp and papermill effuent in the fish, Oreochromis mossambicus was investigated in the present study. Pulp and papermill effluent discharged from Hindustan News Print LTD, Peruva, Kottayam, Kerala were collected and adult fish of size 15±2 g were exposed to a sublethal concentrations (1/5th and 1/10th LC50 value) of the effluent for a period of 10, 20 and 30 days. Pathological conditions such as fatty degeneration (FD), pyknosis (P), haemosiderosis (HS), degenerated renal tubule (DRT) and Vacular hypertrophy of tubular epithelium (VHT). Fatty degeneration (FD) was observed in both concentrations of 10, 20 and 30 days of exposure. Pyknosis (P) was started from 1/5th concentration of 10 days exposed fishes. In experimental fishes haemosiderosis (HS) was found in 1/5th concentration of 20 days and both concentrations of 30 days. Degenerated renal tubule (DRT) was observed in both concentrations of 30 days of papermill effluent exposed fishes. Vacular hypertrophy of tubular epithelium (VHT) and haemosiderosis (HS) was found in 1/5th concentration of 30 days effluent exposed fishes. The present study revealed that the histopathological conditions affect the physiological functions such as metabolic processes and excretion.
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