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During Vijayanagara dynasty (about 400 years back), Raya canal has been built and serving the irrigation needs of the local population of the Hospet Taluk of Bellary district, Karnataka, India. The urban development of Hospet town has been taken place right up to the canal boundary and in certain places; the canal land has also been encroached. A large number of open channels and pipelines etc., have been directly connected to the canal and at many locations, the canal plays an important role as a drainage line or seepage disposal point. The canal water is polluted from disposal of untreated sewage, seepage of agricultural wastes, domestic wastes, washing activities, storm water drainage, cattle farming wastes and dumping of liquid & solid wastes. The people residing on either sides of the Raya canal were using the water extensively for the purpose of washing, bathing, drinking, fishing, cattle feeding etc. To understand the situation, at four different sample stations, (S1 to S4) along the course of Raya canal, water samples were collected on monthly basis to determine and evaluate seasonal changes in the physicochemical parameters like pH, EC, Temp, TH, TA, BOD, COD, chloride, nitrate, phosphate and DO. The comparison of statistics with the standard values prescribed by WHO (2004), ISI (1983), for drinking water and BIS (1991) for irrigation purpose; revealed the high level of BOD, COD, TA and low level of DO in the water content causes a hazardous effect on both aquatic and human lives.